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49 Cards in this Set

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HCFA
Health Care Financing Administration: (1990) Approved low vision as a physical impariment for rehab part B
T/F Low vision is associated with depression
TRUE
Visual Acuity
ability to see items clearly
Accommodate
Focus to changes in illumination (Light/dark adaption)
Moderate Visual Impariment
corrected visual acuity- 20/70-20/16
-10 inches to read
Severe visual impariment
Legal blindness-
Correct VA: 20/200-20/400
20 degrees
4 inches to read
Profound Visual Impariment
Corrected visual impairment: 20/400 and less
10 degrees
2 inches to read
Visual Changes with aging
1. slower processing
2. degeneration along optic pathway
3. difficulty recognizing moving objects or complex figure ground
Sclera (Affects of aging)
Function: Outter layer
Loss of opacity causing vision to be less clear
Choroid
F: Vascular layer/ metabolic support to retina
Retina
Inner nerve layer/ converts light to brain signals
- Rods get sensitive to dim light
-difficulty seeing at night
- cones sensitive to bright light,color discrimination
Diabetic Retinopathy
Affects retinal blood vessels causes hemorrhaging and abnormal growth of new blood vessels
- four stages
Symptoms of Diabetic Retinopathy
Fluctuating distorted vision
Focusing problems
Loss of color vision
Floaters “stars”
Glare sensitive
May have impaired contrast sensitivity
May have central vision problems
Eccentric Viewing
Used when the macula is involved. Requires looking through different parts of your eye
Functional Impact of Contrast Sensitivity
Communication
Mobility
ADLs
Near vision tasks
Retina (macula)
Progressive, Irreversiable central vision loss
-Dry and WEt
Functional Impact of Contrast Sensitivity
Communication
Mobility
ADLs
Near vision tasks
Scotoma
Central visual field loss during reading and writing
-Caused by macualr degeneration
Retina (macula)
Progressive, Irreversiable central vision loss
-Dry and WEt
VEGF
Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor- used to treat "wet" MD
Scotoma
Central visual field loss during reading and writing
-Caused by macualr degeneration
Age related changes to the cornea
Becomes less transparent, thickens, flattens causing astigmatism
What part of the eye is the first to be affected by age related changes?
The Cornea
VEGF
Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor- used to treat "wet" MD
Arcus Sinilu
opaque ring inside the border between the cornea and the sclerotic coat (Affects Peripheral vision)
Age related changes to the cornea
Becomes less transparent, thickens, flattens causing astigmatism
What part of the eye is the first to be affected by age related changes?
The Cornea
Age Changes with the Pupil
Becomes smaller, less light enters
-Older adults require 3X the amount of light
Function of the Lens
Works with the cornea to focus light on the retina at the back of the eye
Arcus Sinilu
opaque ring inside the border between the cornea and the sclerotic coat (Affects Peripheral vision)
Age changes to the Lens
Loss of elasticity
Thickens
Yellowing
(Far sighted, altered color vision, high glare and light sensitivity)
Age Changes with the Pupil
Becomes smaller, less light enters
-Older adults require 3X the amount of light
Function of the Lens
Works with the cornea to focus light on the retina at the back of the eye
Age changes to the Lens
Loss of elasticity
Thickens
Yellowing
(Far sighted, altered color vision, high glare and light sensitivity)
Cataract
Clouding of the lens from portein buildup
-Treated with surgery
Implications of Cataract
Cloudy/ blurry vision
Colors seem faded
Glare, poor night vision, double vision in one eye, Contrast
Glaucoma
"The sneak theif of sight"
Group of conditions that result in elevation of pressure in the eye leading to optic nerve damage
Implications of Glaucoma
loss of peripheral vision
Presbyopia
Loss of accomodation
Hyperopia
Farsightedness
Scotoma
Blind spot (Periph or cent)
Oreferred Retinal Location (PRL)
usage of a particular part of the retina to fixate a target
Key Concepts for Home adaption for Low vision
1. Lighting
2. contrast
3. Reducing Glare
4. Megnificiation and Enlargement
5. Clutter and Safety
The avg 70 yr old can see at?
20 feet ahead
Avg upward gaze at 5-14 yr/o
40 degrees
Avg upward gaze at 75-94
16 degrees
Presbycusis
loss of hearing in old age
Implications of Presbycusis
Blurred sounds
"S" and "TH" are hard to hear and distinguish between
affected by background noise
Mans voice is easier to hear
Tinnitus
Ringing, Roaring, hissing in one or both ears