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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
cerumen impaction
excess cerumen blocks ear canal and impairs hearing. Ceruminolytic agents and lavage of ear can remove impaction and restore hearing
otitis media
inflammation of the middle ear, common cause of temporary conductive hearing loss. Tx includes topical heat and systemic analgesics and antibiotics for bacterial infxn. surgical tx. is called myringotomy
inflammation of the inner ear(cochlear or vestibular portion)s/s vertigo, tinnitus and sensorineural hearing loss on teh affected side. Rare condition since the use of antibiotics. Destruction of cochlea or labyrinth cause permanent deafness.
sensorineural hearing loss associated with aging. Loss of higher frequency sounds related to degenerative changes in the inner ear, loss of hair cells, reduction of blood supply, diminution of endolymph production, decreased basilar membrane flexibility and loss of neurons in the cochlear nuclei
most common conductive hearing loss, occurs because of pathologic changes in the bones of the middle ear. Fixation of ossicles reduces or provents sound waves to transmit in inner ear fluids. Women adults are more affected than men
Meniere's disease
tinnitus and vertigo. Unilateral fluctuating hearing loss. Known as endolymphatic hydrops. s/s are treated with antihistamines, antiemetics, benzodiazepines, diuretics, tranquilizers, vasoactive agents and oral niacin
macular degeneration
loss of central vision related to atrophy or deteriorationof the macula. Peripheral vision remains. associated with aging
lens loses its transparency and/or becomes opaque. Associated with aging, but may be congenital, caused by eye injury or secondary to metabolic problems such as diabetes mellitus. Surgical removal and insertion of intraocular lens
changes in the retina due to poorly controlled diabetes. It is the leading cause of vision loss in adults under age 40
chanracterized by an abnormally high pressure of fluid inside the eyeball. Open-angle has a gradual rise in intraocular pressure, slow progressive loss of peripheral vision. Closed-angle have sudden attacks of increased intraocular pressure with a bulging iris which is an emergency situation. Iridectomy- an incision through the cornea to facilitate drainage of the aqueous humor
inflammation of the conjunctiva cause by bacteria, viral or rickettsial organisms, allergens, or irritants. s/s incluse itchy eyes, discharge, swelling, pain and redness. tx. apply warm compresses
corneal abrasion
injury or destruction through irritants to the outer surface of the eye
retinal detatchment
separation of the retina from the choroid. See sudden flashes of light or have floating spots, blurred vision that becomes progressively worse. Bedrest and a patch over one or both eyes used to restrict activity
associated with aging when the elasticity of the lens of the eye is lost. Near vision is lost but far vision remains the same
farsightedness. flattened eyeball or refractive system is too weak. Vision beyone 20 ft is normal, near vision is poor
nearsightedness. light focuses in front of the retina. Near vision is normal but distance is poor
gait imbalance
gait shortens and becomes less steady. Antalgic gait abnormality in the heel strike through push-off action. Lurch-swing phase abnormality
second leading cause of accidental death in the elderly. Altered gait and decreased mobility are pathophysiological changes that occur with aging
impaired hearing
conductive, inability of sound waves to reach the inner ear because of cerumen, perforated tympanic membrane or fixation of the ossicles. Sensorineural, tumor, infection, trauma, exposure to loud noises caused destruction of the cranial nerve VIII
unseen handicap. Moderaltly severe loss 56-70 dB range, severely impaired 70-90 dB and profoundly deaf have greater than 91dB
visual impairment
decreased acuity, blurred vision, double vision, bling spots, holos, photosensitivity
neurovascular deficits
impaired pain perception and perception of temperature changes in extremities
burning, prickling, tingling sensation
alterations in mental status
confusion due to over or under stimulation with an inability to process stimuli. Disorientation, awareness of time, place, self is impaired. Slowed thought processes is not an normal part of aging
inability of the eyes to focus in the same direction. Weak eye muscles and immature coordination
rinne test
use of tuning fork placed against the mastoid process and near the ear to assess hearing. Conductive hearign loss if the bone conduction of sound is greater that air conduction
Weber test
use of a tuning fork placed at the top of the head. Equal vibration should be heard in both ears. In conduction deafness vibration will be best heard in the affected ear. In sensorineural loss the sound is heard in the unaffected ear
measurement of intraocular pressure. Elevated pressure reveals glaucoma.
opthalmic medication
analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents,steriods, lubricants. Myotic constrict the pupil and mydriatics dilate the pupil
otic medications
antibiotics, anti-inflammatory agents, topical analgesics and steroids, cerumenolytics
can cause reversible hearing loss with high doses
osmotic diuretics
s/s of high doses
cause transient or permanent hearing loss
myringotomy-post op
lie on affected side to improve drainage from the middle ear.
cochliar implants
for profound deaf
cataract surgery
eye medication to prepare the eye for surgery. Implantation of an intraocular lens. Use of a patich over the affected eye, miotic eye drops and cold compresses for discomfort
provides for drainage of aqueous humor for glaucoma
snellen chart
tests visual acuity
romberg test
assesses for balance