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65 Cards in this Set

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Sensation
A state of awareness about the environment - int. or ext. - conscious or subconsious
degree of awareness depends on where impulse goes in c.n.s.
Perception
A conscious registration of sensory stimulation - the awareness and interpretation of the stimulus - this requires the cerebral cortex
Stimulus
A change in the environ.
one capable of producing a change
Receptor
(sense organ)
Simple or complex in anatomy
Conduction pathway
The pathway an impulse travels from the receptor to the c.n.s.
Translation
Occurs in the brain
brain makes sense out of or analyses incoming info.
Sensation prerequisites
The ability to locate, recognize and evaluate sensations is a function of the cerebrum.
Stimulus
Receptor
Conduction pathway
Translation
Projection
Brain refers sensation to origin of stimulus
Adaptation
A decrease in sensation due to continued stimulation
Afterimage
A sensation that persists (remains) after the stimulus stops - is like the reverse of an adaption.
Modality
The quality that makes one sensation diff. from another
each receptor results in one perception only (heat, cold, light, pressure, tickle)
Exteroceptors
Located at or near the surface of the body
Visceroceptors
enteroceptors
Located in visceral organs, blood vessels, etc.
Proprioceptors
Located in muscles, tendons, joints, and inner ear
Determines body position
Mechanoreceptors
Response of receptor due to its mechanical deformation
Thermoreceptors
Response due to registration or change in temp.
Nociceptors
Response of receptors due to pain (esp. tissue tissue damage)
Photoreceptors
Responds to light
Chemoreceptors
These receptors respond to chemicals
Simple receptors
gen. senses
simple anatomy
wide distribution in body
Complex receptors
special senses
complex anatomy
limited (restricted) distribution
Cutaneous sensations
tactile
touch, pressure, vibration, itch and tickle
Skin
Touch
Results from stimulation of tactile receptors in skin and subcutaneous layer
Light touch
nondiscriminate or crude
A gen. awareness that something has contacted skin occurs - but- there is no awareness of shape, size or location
Discriminate touch
Can tell about shape, size, or location of stimulus
modility known
"fine touch"
Touch (discriminate)
EXAMPLES
Corpuscles of touch (meissners)
Root hair plexuses
Type I cutaneous mechanoreceptors (tactile or merkel discs)
Type II cutaneous mechanoreceptors (end organs of ruffini
Corpuscles of touch (meissners) & Root hair Plexuses
Adapt rapidly
Type I cutaneous mechanoreceptors (tactile or merkel discs)
Slow adaptors
Type II cutaneous mechanoreceptors (end organs of ruffini
In dermis, ligaments and tendons - respond to movements (stretching) of digits and limbs - slow adaptor
Pressure
Sustained sensation felt over a larger area
deformation of deeper tissues
Type II cutaneous mechanoreceptors
Pacinian (lamallated) corpuscles
Corpuscles of touch
Vibration
Sensation due to continued movement of receptors
Corpuscles of touch (meissners)
Pacinian (lamallated) corpuscles
Itch or tickle sensation
Free naked nerve endings;
Possibly naked nerve endings and pacinian corpuscles
Free naked nerve endings
For itch sensation - due to local skin reaction
Possibly naked nerve endings and pacinian corpuscles
For tickle sensation
Thermoreceptive sensations
free nerve endings
Cold receptors
Warm receptors
cold receoptors in stratum basale
warm receptors in dermis
Pain sensations
Needed for awarness of potential danger and survival
Nociceptors
Free naked nerve endings esp. respond to tissue damage
Acute pain
Occurs rapidly
esp. not felt in deeper tissues and internal organs
called: fast, sharp, and prickling.
Chronic pain
Longer lasting
felt in skin, deeper tissues and internal organs
called: slow, bad, burning, throbbing or severe.
Somatic
Located in structures associated with the voluntary nervous system
anything non-visceral
recall that naked nerve endings are the receptors
consists:
Superficial somatic pain
Deep somatic pain
Superficial somatic pain
Often from skin receptors
Deep somatic pain
In skeletal muscle, joints, tendons and fasciae
Visceral
Located in the internal organs
naked nerve endings are the receptors
Referred pain
Pain felt away from the site of the stimulus
Ex. heart attack - when brain makes a mistake, and sends stimulus in different places in body besides heart.
Phantom pain
Pain felt in amputated member
Ex. Amputated limb
Proprioceptive (kinesthetic) sense receptors
The receptors deal with movement and body position
Consists of:
Muscle spindle
Tendon (golgi) organs
Joint kinesthetic receptors
Maculae and cristae
Muscle spindle
consists of several slowly adapting sensory nerve endings that wrap around 3-10 specialized muscle fibers
Tendon (golgi) organs
consists o a thin capsule of conn. tissue that encloses a few tendon facicles
Joint kinesthetic receptors
Lamallated corpuscles, Ruffini corpuscles, tendon organs, and free nerve endings
Maculae and cristae
Will be covered with inner ear (labyrinth)
Sensory neuron types
This topic deals with the degree or quality of sensation and interpretation
consists:
1st order neurons
2nd order neurons
3rd order neurons
First order neurons
Carries impulse to spinal cord or lower brain stem
Second order neurons
Carries impulse further to the thalamus
Third order neurons
Carries impulse from thalamus to cerebral cortex
Level of sensations
Spinal cord
Lower brain stem
Thalamus
Cerebral cortex
Spinal cord
(level of sensation)
spinal reflexes
1st order neurons
Lower brain stem
(level of sensation)
subconsious motor reflexes
1st order neurons
Thalamus
(level of sensation)
location generalized
modality recognized
2nd order neuron
Cerebral cortex
(level of sensation)
location precise
memories occur
3rd order neuron
Two major sensory pathways
Posterior column
Anterolateral (spinothalamic) pathway
Posterior column
medial
lemniscus pathway
Anterolateral (spinothalamic) pathway
composed of 3 neuron sets
sensory pathway that conveys info related to pain, temperature, crude touch, pressure, tickle, and itch.
Two major motor pathways
Direct (pyramidal) pathway
Indirect (extrapyramidal) pathway
Direct (pyramidal) pathway
collections of upper mostor neurons with cell bodies in the motor cortex that projects axon into the spinal cord, where the synapse with lower neuron or interneuron in the ant. horns.
Indirect (extrapyramidal) pathway
Motor tracts that convey informations from brain down spinal cord for autonomic movements, coordination of body movements with visual stimuli, skeletal muscle tone, posture and balance.