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123 Cards in this Set

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The shadow created by the head that decreases the level of high-frequency sounds on the opposite side of the head. It is the basis of the localization cue of interaural level difference.
acoustic shadow
In hearing, the process of building a complex tone by starting with the fundamental frequency and adding pure tone harmonies.
additive synthesis
In the case of a repeating sound wave, such as the sine waver of a pure tone, this represents the pressure difference between atmospheric pressure and the maximum pressure of the wave.
amplitude
The end of the basilar membrane farthest from the middle ear.
apex of the cochlea
The study of how sounds are reflected in rooms. An important concept of this study is how these reflected sounds change the quality of sounds we hear in rooms.
architectural acoustics
The buildup of sound at the beginning of a tone.
attack
A curve that indicates the sound pressure level (SPL) at threshold for frequencies across the audible spectrum.
audibility curve
The canal through which air vibrations travel from the environment to the tympanic membrane.
auditory canal
Principles such as similarity and good continuation that operate to group sounds into perceptual streams.
principles of auditory grouping
the perception of the localization of a sound source
auditory localization
The area of the cortex, located in the temporal lobe, that is the primary receiving area for hearing.
auditory receiving area (A1)
The psychophysically measured area that defines the frequencies and sound pressure levels over which hearing functions. This area extends between the audibility curve and the curve for the threshold of feeling.
auditory response area
The sound environment, which includes the locations and qualities of individual sound sources.
auditory scene
The process by which listeners sort superimposed vibrations into separate sounds.
auditory scene analysis
Perception of where sounds are located in space. This extends around a listener's head in all directions, existing wherever there is sound.
auditory space
The effect that occurs when a series of tones that differ in pitch or timbre are played so these tones become perceptually separated into simultaneously occurring independent streams of sound.
auditory stream segregation
In hearing, specifices locations that vary from left to right relative to the listener.
azimuth coordinate
The part of the basilar membrane nearest the middle ear.
base of the cochlea
A membrane that stretches the length of the cochlea and controls the vibration of the cochlear partition.
basilar membrane
Auditory area in the temporal lobe that receives signals from the core area and sends signals to the parabelt area.
belt area
Sound localization cue that involves both ears.
binaural cue
A hypothetical central mechanism that analyzes the pattern of tone's harmonics and selects the fundamental frequency that is most likely to have been part of that pattern. It has been proposed that this mechanism is involved in our perception of periodicity pitch.
central pitch processor
The frequency at which a neuron in the auditory system has its lowest threshold.
characteristic frequency
Fine hairs that protrude from the inner and outer hair cells of the auditory system. Bending these of the inner hair cells leads to transduction.
cilia
The snail-shaped, liquid-filled structure that contains the structures of the inner ear, the most important of which are the basilar membrane, the tectorial membrane, and teh hair cells.
cochlea
A device in which electrodes are inserted into the cochlea to create hearing by electrically stmiulating the auditory nerve fibers. This device is used to restore hearing in people who have lost their hearing because of damaged hair cells.
cochlear implant
The nucleus where nerve fibers from the cochlea first synapse.
cochlear nucleus
A partition in the cochlea, extending almost its full length, that separates the scala tympani and the scala vestibuli. The organ of Corti, which contains the hair cells, is part of this partition.
cochlear partition
The area in the temporal lobe that includes the primary auditory cortex (A1) and some nearby areas. Singals from this area are transmitted to the belt area of the auditory cortex.
core area
The decrease in the sound signal that occurs at the end of a tone.
decay
The effect that occurs when a series of tones that differ in pitch or timbre are played so these tones become perceptually separated into simultaneously occurring independent streams of sound.
auditory stream segregation
In hearing, specifices locations that vary from left to right relative to the listener.
azimuth coordinate
The part of the basilar membrane nearest the middle ear.
base of the cochlea
A membrane that stretches the length of the cochlea and controls the vibration of the cochlear partition.
basilar membrane
Auditory area in the temporal lobe that receives signals from the core area and sends signals to the parabelt area.
belt area
Sound localization cue that involves both ears.
binaural cue
A hypothetical central mechanism that analyzes the pattern of tone's harmonics and selects the fundamental frequency that is most likely to have been part of that pattern. It has been proposed that this mechanism is involved in our perception of periodicity pitch.
central pitch processor
The frequency at which a neuron in the auditory system has its lowest threshold.
characteristic frequency
Fine hairs that protrude from the inner and outer hair cells of the auditory system. Bending these of the inner hair cells leads to transduction.
cilia
The snail-shaped, liquid-filled structure that contains the structures of the inner ear, the most important of which are the basilar membrane, the tectorial membrane, and teh hair cells.
cochlea
A device in which electrodes are inserted into the cochlea to create hearing by electrically stmiulating the auditory nerve fibers. This device is used to restore hearing in people who have lost their hearing because of damaged hair cells.
cochlear implant
The nucleus where nerve fibers from the cochlea first synapse.
cochlear nucleus
A partition in the cochlea, extending almost its full length, that separates the scala tympani and the scala vestibuli. The organ of Corti, which contains the hair cells, is part of this partition.
cochlear partition
The area in the temporal lobe that includes the primary auditory cortex (A1) and some nearby areas. Singals from this area are transmitted to the belt area of the auditory cortex.
core area
The decrease in the sound signal that occurs at the end of a tone.
decay
A unit that indicates the presence of a tone relative to a reference pressure: dB = 20 log (p/po) where p is the pressure of the tone and po is the reference pressure.
decibel (dB)
Sound that is transmitted directly from a sound source to the ears.
direct sound
In hearing, this coordinate specifies how far the sound source is from the listener.
distance coordinate
Another term for the tympanic membrane, the membrane located at the end of the auditory canal that vibrates in response to sound.
eardrum
The time separation at which two sounds presented at different locations are no longer fused, so two separate sounds are heard. At separations shorter than this, the two sound sources are heard as one.
echo treshold
Removing the fundamental frequency and other lower harmonies from a musical tone does not change the tone's pitch.
effect of the missing fundamental
In hearing, sound localizations that are up and down relative to teh listener.
elevation coordinate
A curve that indicates the maximum displacement at each point along the basilar membrane caused by a traveling wave.
envelope of the traveling wave
A curve that indicates the sound pressure levels that result in a perception of the same loudness at frequencies across the audible spectrum.
equal loudness curve
In hearing, the situation in which sounds are heard as originating in space, as in the space surrounding a listener. This occurs inthe normal listening environment, and when a person's head-related transfer function (HRTF) is taken into account in processing sounds heard through headphones.
externalization
A mathematical technique that analyzes complex periodic waveforms into a number of sine-wave components.
fourier analysis
In hearing experiments, presenting sounds at various positions around a listener's head. This is usually accomplished by moving speakers to different positions in space, and testing the listener in the dark. The listener indicates the position of the sound, either by pointing to it, or by indicating azimuth and elevation coordinates.
free-field presentation
In the case of a sound wave that repeats itself, such as the sine wave of a pure tone, this is the number of times per second that the wave repeats itself.
frequency
A plot that indicates the amplitudes of the various harmonics that make up a complex tone. Each harmonic is indicated by a line that is positioned along the frequency axis, with the height of the line indicating the amplitude of the harmonic.
frequency spectrum
Curve relating frequency and the threshold intensity for activating an auditory neuron.
frequency tuning curve
Usually the lowest frequency in the Fourier spectrum of a complex tone. This frequency is also called the first harmonic. The tone's other components, called higher harmonics, have frequencies that are multiples of the fundamental frequency.
fundamental frequency
In hearing, when sounds that are presented simultaneously at two different locations are perceived as sound from a single location.
fusion
Neuron in the cochlea that contains small hairs, or cilia, that are displaced by vibration of the basilar membrane and fluids inside the inner ear. There are two kinds of these: inner and outer.
hair cells
Auditory receptor cell in the inner ear that is primarily responsible for auditory transduction and the perception of pitch.
inner hair cell
Auditory receptor cells in the inner ear that amplify the response of the inner hair cells.
outer hair cells
Fourier components of a complex tone with frequencies that are multiples of the fundamental frequency.
harmonics
In hearing experiments, presenting sounds through headphones. This way of presenting sound has the advantage that the experimenter has precise control over the stimuli. For example, it is possible to vary the timing and intensities of the signals reaching the left and right ears.
headphone presentation
The difference between the sound from a source and the sound actucally entering the ears that is caused by interaction of the sound with the head and pinnae. This difference provides a cue for auditory localization because a specific pattern of frequencies is associated with each location in space relative to the listener.
Head-related transfer function (HRTF)
The experience of perceiving sound.
hearing
The unit for designating the frequency of a tone. One of these equals one cycle per second.
Hertz (Hz)
Processing signals through a sequence of areas. This occurs in the visual system as signals are transmitted from the LGN to primary visual receiving area, and then to higher areas. It occurs in the auditory system as signals are transmitted from the core to the belt to parabelt regions of the cortex.
hierarchical processing
The second of the tree ossicles of the middle ear. It transmits vibrations from the malleus to the stapes.
incus
Sound that reaches the ears after being reflected from a surface such as a room's walls.
indirect sound
A nucleus in the hearing system along the pathway from the cochlea of the auditory cortex. It receives inputs from the superior olivary nucleus.
inferior colliculus
The innermost division of the ear, containing the cochlea and the receptors for hearing.
inner ear
The greater level of a sound at the closer ear when a sound source is positioned closer to one ear than to the other. This effect is most pronounced for high-frequency tones. This provides a cue for sound localization.
interaural level difference (ILD)
When a sound is positioned closer to one ear than to the other, the sound reaches the close ear slightly before reaching the far ear, so there is a difference in the time of arrival at the two ears. This provides a cue for sound localization.
interaural time difference (ITD)
A neuron that fires only when a stimulus is presented first to one ear and then to the other, with a specific delay between the stimulation of the two ears.
interaural time difference detector
In hearing experiments, when a listener perceives sounds as originating inside his or her head. This can occur when listening to headphones.
internalization
In hearing, characteristics of the sound reaching the listener that provide information regarding the location of a sound source.
location cue
The quality of sound that ranges from soft to loud. For a tone of a particular frequency, loudness usually increases with increasing decibels.
loudness
The first of the ossicles of the middle ear. Receives vibrations from the tympanic membrane and transmits these vibrations to the incus.
malleus
Occurs when presentation of one sound decreases listener's ability to hear another sound.
masking
An auditory nucleus in the thalamus that is part of the pathway from the cochlea to the auditory cortex. This nucleus receives inputs from the inferior colliculus and transmits signals to the auditory cortex.
medial geniculate nucleus
A representation of a familiar melody that is stored in a person's memory. Existence of this makes it more likely that the tones associated with a melody will be perceptually grouped.
melody schema
The small air-filled space between the auditory canal and the cochlea that contains the ossicles.
middle ear
Muscles attached to the ossicles in the middle ear. The smallest skeletal muscles in the body, they contract in response to very intense sounds and dampen the vibration of the ossicles.
middle-ear muscles
A response to a sound of the outer hair cells in which these cells move. The cells tilt and get slightly longer, which increases basilar membrane vibration and therefore amplifies the response of the inner hair cells.
motile response
Tones that have frequencies that are binary multiples of each other.
octave
The major structure of the cochlear partition, containing the basilar membrane, the tectorial membrane, and the receptors for hearing.
organ of corti
Three small bones in the middle ear that transmit vibrations from the outer to the inner ear.
ossicles
The pinna and the external auditory meatus.
outer ear
A small, membrane-covered hole in the cochlea that receives vibrations from the stapes.
oval window
A neuron in the auditory system that fires to sounds originating in any direction and that indicates each location by its temporal pattern of firing.
panoramic neuron
Auditory area in the temporal lobe that receives signals from the belt area.
parabelt area
The constancy of a complex tone's pitch when the fundamental frequency and other lower harmonics are eliminated.
periodicity pitch
Firing of auditory neurons in synchrony with the phase of an auditory stimulus.
phase locking
The quality of sound, ranging from low to high, that is most closely associated with the frequency of a tone.
pitch
The proposal that the frequency of a sound is indicated by the place along the organ of Corti at which nerve firing is highest. This is based on Bekesy's traveling wave theory of hearing.
place theory of hearing
The effect that occurs when two identical or very similar sounds reach a listener's ears separated by a time interval of less than about 50 to 100 ms, and the listener hears the sound that reaches his or her ears first.
precedence effect
A function that indicates the intensity of masking tones of different frequencies that cause a low-intensity pure tone to become just barely detectable.
psychophysical tuning curve
A tone with pressure changes that can be described by a single sine wave.
pure tone
The location is space from which sound influences the firing of a neuron.
receptive field for sound location
A mechanism that enhances the intensity of certain frequencies because of the reflection of sound waves in a closed tube. This in the auditory canal enhances frequencies between about 2,000 and 5,000 Hz.
resonance
The frequency that is most strongly enhanced by resonance. This of a closed tube is determined by the length of the tube.
resonant frequency
The time it takes for a sound produced in an enclosed space to decrease to 1/1000th of its original pressure.
reverberation time
An illusion that occurs when successive notes of a scale are presented alternately to the left and the right ears. Even though each ear receives notes that jump up and down in frequency, smoothly ascending or descending scales are heard in each ear. aka melodic channeling
scale illusion
The pressure of a sound stimulus, expressed in decibels.
sound level
A designation used to indicate that the reference pressure used for calculating a tone's decibel rating is set at 20 micropascals, near the threshold in the most sensitive frequency range for hearing.
sound pressure level (SPL)
Pattern of pressure changes in a medium. Most of the sounds we hear are due to pressure changes in the air, although sound can be transmitted through water and solids as well.
sound wave
In hearing, the distribution of frequencies reaching the ear that are associated iwth specific locations of a sound. One of the major ones is the head-related transfer function (HRTF), which indicates the spectrum of frequencies at each location that are caused by interaction of wound with the listener's head and pinnae.
spectral cue
The last of the three ossicles in the middle ear. It receives vibrations from the incus and transmits these vibrations to the oval window of the inner ear.
stapes
Structure below the cerebral cortex. The cochlear nucleus and superior olivary nucleus are among these structures in the auditory system.
subcortical structure
A nucleus along the auditory pathway from the cochlea to the auditory cortex. It receives inputs from the cochlear nucleus.
superior olivary nuclues
A membrane that stretches the length of the cochlea and is located directly over the hair cells. Vibrations of the cochlear partition cause this membrane to bend the hair cells by rubbing against them.
tectorial membrane
The quality that distinguishes between two tones that sound different even though they have the same loudness, pitch, and duration. Differences in this quality are illustrated by the sounds made by different musical instruments.
timbre
The perceptual similarity of notes separated by one or more octaves.
tone chroma
The increase in pitch that occurs as frequency is increased.
tone height
An ordered map of frequencies created by the responding neurons within structures in the auditory system. There is a _______ map of neurons along the length of the cochlea, with neurons at the apex responding best to low frequencies and neurons at the base responding best to high frequencies.
tonotopic map
A map on a structure such as the cortex in which points on the structure correspond in a systematic way to locations in space for hearing.
topographic map
In the auditory system, vibration of the basilar membrane in which the peak of the vibration travels from the base of the membrane to its apex.
traveling wave
Occurs when a listener wearing headphones experiences externalization, so sounds are heard as originating in space, as in the normal listening environment. This occurs on ly when sounds heard in the headphones have been processed, taking the listener's HRTF into account.
virtual auditory space (VAS)
In hearing, grouping similarity of timbre that occurs when three-note ascending scales of tones alternating in timbre are played rapidly. The resulting grouping based on timbre creates a perception of descending three-note scales.
Wessel effect