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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Process by which you detect physical energy and encode it as neural signals.
Absolute Threshold
Way to measure sensory sensitivity
Signal/Detection Theory
No actual absolute threshold due to factors
Subliminal Stimulation
Receipt of messages that are below one’s absolute threshold for conscious awareness
Difference Threshold
Minimum difference between any 2 stimuli that a person can detect 50% of the time
“Just noticeable difference”-Ability to notice change
Weber’s Law
Difference threshold increases proportion to size of stimulus
Sensory Adaptation
Become less sensitive to a stimulus-allows you to focus on important changes
Transformation of stimulus energy to the electrochemical energy of neural impulses
Convert light energy to electrochemical neural impulses. Ex. Rods/Cones
Tough, white connective tissue
Transparent tissue in the front of your eye
Have lower threshold than cones; are sensitive to light/dark/movement.
Are sensitive to different wavelengths of light; provides basis for color
Dark Adaptation
Shift from mostly cone vision to mostly rod vision.
Bipolar Cells
Layer of neurons in front of retina
Ganglion cells
Layer of neurons in front bipolar cells
Optic Nerve
Formed by converged axons of ganglion cells
Feature Detectors
Specific neurons in the primary visual cortex of the brain
Parallel Processing
Simultaneous processing of stimulus elements
Trichromatic Theory
3 different types of photoreceptors are each most sensitive to a different range of wavelengths.
Your sense hearing
Height of the sound wave and louder the sound
Number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a second
Determine the highest/lowest of the sound called
The purity of the wave form/mixture of the sound waves
Sound localization
Process by which you determine the location of a sound
Place Theory
The position on the basilar membrane at which waves reach their peak depends on the frequency of the tone
Frequency Theory
The rate of the neural impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone.
Conduction Deafness
A loss of hearing that results when the eardrum is punctured or any of the ossicles lose their ability to vibrate.
Nerve deafness
(sensorineural) results from damage done to the cochlea, hair cells, or auditory neurons
Depth Perception
Ability to judge the distance of objects
Monocular Cues
Clues about distance based on the image of one eye. Ex Motion parallax/ accomodation
Binocular Cues
Clues about distance requiring 2 eyes. Ex. Retinal disparity/convergence
Inward turning of your eyes that occurs when you look at an object that is close to you
Motion Parallax
Involves images of objects at different distances moving across the retina at different rates
When a closer object cuts off the view of part or all of a more distant one
Relative Size
Provides a cue to their distance when the closer of 2 same-size objects casts a larger image on your retina
Relative Clarity
When closer objects appear sharper than more distant, hazy objects
Texture Gradient
A cue to distance when closer objects have a coarser, more distinct texture than far away objects that appear more densely packed or smooth
Relative Height/Elevation
When 2 objects closest to the horizon appear to be the farthest from you.
Linear Perspective
A cue to distance when parallel lines seem to converge in the distance
Optical Illusions
2 identical horizontal bars seem to differ in length.
Perceptual Constancy
As an object approaches, it appears larger
Perceptual Set
AKA mental Presiposition; Determined by schemas you form early on
Concepts or framework that organize and interpret info
Perceptual Adaptation
Adapting to the changed visual input
Extrasensory Perception
ESP; Perception can occur apart from sensory input
Mind-to-mind communication
Perception of remote events
Perception of future events
AKA psychokinesis; moving remote objects through mental processes