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36 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the function of hearing?
Hearing has signaling function, also music and speech
What did Hellen Keller say about being deaf
she was both blind and deaf, but she felt that being deaf is worse than being blind, because blindness isolated her from things but deafness isolated her from people
How can sound be defined?
Sound can be defined as physical stimulus or a perceptual response
When the tree falls in the forest, will there be a sound if there is no one to listen?
if the sound is defined as physical stimulus (pressure changes in the air or other medium) then yes, because falling tree causes pressure changes. Perceptual definition is that sound is experience we have when we hear, then the answer is no, because if no one is on the forest, there would be no experience
Pure tone
simple kind of sound, in which pressure changes occur in a pattern described by mathematical function called a sine wave
Amplitude in speaker
distance diaphragm moves out of its rest position
Frequency in speaker
number of times per second that speaker diaphragm goes through cycle of moving out, back in, and then out again
one cycle per second
What are frequencies humans can hear in?
20-20.000 Hz
unit of sound
Equation to convert sound pressure to decibels
# of Db = 20 log p/p0
p- sound pressure of stim.
p0- standard sound pressure (20 micropascals)
standard pressure level, when 20 micropascals used
Multiplying sound pressure by 10 adds _ dB
Fourier analysis
any complex waveform can be broken down into series of sine waves
Fourier frequency spectrum
plot that indicates each harmonics frequency by line position on the horizontal axis and its amplitude by the height of the line
Audibility curve
indicates how sensitivity changes across the frequencies that we can hear by plotting threshold for hearing vs frequency
Auditory response area
area above audibility curve, because we can hear tones that fall within that area
magnitude of auditory sensation
How to determine loudness given frequency and dB
Loudness is judged relative to a standard of 1000 Hz at 40 dB, which is assigned a value of 1
quality of tone that we describe as high or low
How is pitch related to frequency
Low frequencies cause low pitches, high frequencies cause high pitches
Tone height
property of increasing pitch that accompanies increases in tones frequency
Tone chroma
notes with the same letter have same tone chroma
if two tones have same loudness, pitch and duration but sound different, then difference is timbre (flute and bassoon playing same note)
Outer ear
pinna + auditory canal
Functions of outer ear
protective function and enhancing intensities of sounds by means of resonance
sound waves that are reflected back from the closed end of auditory canal interact with sound waves that are entering auditory canal
Name 3 ossicles
1. malleus - set in vibration by tympanic membrane, to which it is attached
2.incus- gets vibrations from malleus
How do ossicles amplify vibrations
1) concentrating vibrations of large tympanic membrane on smaller stapes
2) create lever action
Middle ear muscles
smallest skeletal muscles in body, attached to ossicles, at very high intensities contract to dampen ossicles vibration, protecting inner ear
main structure of inner ear filled with liquid, liquid is set into vibration by movement of stapes against oval window
organ of corti
large structure in cochlear partition, contains receptors(hair cells), sits on top of basilar membrane, covered on top by basilar membrane
2 types of hair cells
inner hair cells and outer hair cells
what do cilia in hair cells do?
bending of cilia transduces vibrations caused by sound in electrical signals
place theory of hearing
frequency of sound is indicated by the place along the organ of Corti at which nerve firing is highest,so it states that frequency is indicated by which fibers are firing
Apex of cochlea responds best to _ frequencies, base responds best to _ frequencies
low, high