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35 Cards in this Set

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METATHEORIES: Biological
focuses on underpinning of behavior and evolution and genetics.

Behavior can be explained by understanding the human physiology and anatomy.

Biological Psychologist focus on the brain and the nervous system.

-EVOLUTION-GENETICS-PHYSIOLOGY-ANATOMY-BRAIN-NERVOUS SYSTEM-
METATHEORIES: Psychoanalytic
Emphasizes importance of unconscious mental processes and early childhood developmental issues as they relate to
-impulses, childish wishes, immature desires, and the demands of the reality we live in.

Founded by Sigmund Freud.

-UNCONSCIOUS PROCESS-CHILDHOOD-IMPULSE-DESIRES-
METATHEORIES: Behaviorism
Emphasizes role of previous learning experience in shaping behavior

Do not focus on mental process beacause they are too difficult to measure objectively.

"Monkey see, monkey do!" Recently lots of work has been done on violent media.

-OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING-LEARNING FROM OTHERS-
METATHEORIES: Cognitive
Focuses on mental processing of information, including
-reasoning, problem solving and memory

Interested in mental plans and thoughts that guide and cause behavior.

-MENTAL PROCESS-REASON-MEMORY-MENTAL PLANS-THOUGHTS-COGNITION
METATHEORIES: Humanistic and Existential
Emphasizes uniqueness of the indivdual person, and our ability and responsibility to make our own choices.

Most important things in live are free choice and free will.

-INDIVIDUALISM-FREEDOM OF CHOICE-MEANINGFUL EVENTS-
METATHEORIES: Sociocultural
Focuses on social and cultural factors that affect our behavior.

-POWER OF GROUPS-SOCIAL PHENOMENONS-CROWDS-"STATUS QUO"-
METATHEORIES: Feminism
Focuses on political, economic and social rights of women and how these factors influence both men and womens behavior.

Huge issue: eating disorders, a consequence of the media placing excessive pressure on females to be thin.

-WOMENS RIGHTS-EFFECTS OF WOMENS RIGHTS ON MEN AND WOMEN-SOCIETAL EXPECTATIONS OF WOMEN-
METATHEORIES: Postmodernism
Questions psychology's core, challenges its approach to truth and it's focus on the individual.

Claims that concepts such as reality and truth are socially contructed, and have no meaning other than what society has given them.

-"SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIVIST VIEW OF REALITY"-REALITY AND TRUTH DEFINED BY SOCIETY-
BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL MODEL OF PSYCHOLOGY
Basic Principle: Human behavior and mental processes are the products of biological, psychological and social influences, and how they interact.

**-Any explanation of behavior must consider all three factors in order to be complete.-**
THREE COMPONENTS OF BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL MODEL: BODY MIND AND PEOPLE
BODY: We are physical beings, our exist as flesh and bones.

Because these days our "mind" is accepted synonymously with our brain, it is lumped with the biological methatheory.

MIND: Thoughts, feelings, desires, beliefs. The mind is central to understanding human behavior and mental processes.

PEOPLE: Behavioral and mental processes are embedded within a context that includes people and the material environment around us.

The social aspect also includes things that are non-human, such as nature and technology.

-BIOLOGICAL STUDIES THE MIND AS THE BRAIN-SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGISTS STUDY THE EFFECT OF SOCIETY
THREE MAIN TYPES OF PSYCHOLOGISTS: EXPERIMENTAL, APPLIED AND CLINICAL
EXPERIMENTAL: spend the majority of their time conducting research, often work in academic settings.

APPLIED: directly apply research and psychological theory to everyday settings and problems. Work in a variety of settings such as business, government, education and even sports.

CLINICAL: study, diagnose and treat psychological problems. Must posess a degree (PhD, PsyD or EdD) and nearly all states require a license which involves an extensive licensing exam.
THREE ELEMENTS OF A GOOD THEORY: Parsimony, Precision and Testability.
PARSIMONY: It must be the simplest explanation possible that still explains the available observation.

PRECISION: It must be precise, not overly large or vague, statements about reality.

TESTABILITY: It must lend itself to scientific investigation.
RUNNING LIKE A WELL OILED MACHINE: Body Systems
Spinal Nerves: Travel from spinal cord to muscles and other body parts carrying neural signals to and from the spinal cord.

Cranial nerves: nerves involved in muscular and sensory processes of head and neck.

Sympathetic nervous system: Part of the ANS (AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM) involved in energetic activation of the body when we need excess energy. Gives us the energy for fight or flight reactions.

Parasympathetic nervous systems: Part of the ANS that deactivates the SNS (sympathetic nervous system after it has been engaged). Sometimes called the "relaxation response" because the activity of the SNS is relaxed or shut off, so we can return to normal functioning.
THE HUMAN NERVOUS SYSTEM
TWO LARGE DIVISIONS: CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS) AND THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
CONSCIOUSNESS: ALTERING EVERYDAY AWARENESS
RAPTURE: an intense feeling of overpowering emotion, experiences as pleasureable and positive. Ex, after sex, ritualistic dancing, religious rituals and the use of psychoactive substances.

Medatative states: minimal mental activity that includes reductions in mental imagery brought on by meditation, yoga or even prayer.

Trance states: an alert but suggestable state. An individual in a trance is focused on one object and is oblivious to much of everything else that is going on around them.

DAYDREAMING: rapid thinking unrelated to an individuals current environment.

EXPANDED CONSCIOUSNESS: increased awareness not typical of everyday experience and awareness.
FOUR LEVELS OF EXPANDED CONSCIOUSNESS: SENSORY, RECOLLECTIVE-ANALYTIC, SYMBOLLIC AND INTEGRAL.
SENSORY: an altered experience of space, time and other sensory phenomena.

RECOLLECTIVE ANALYTIC: an experience in which individuals develop novel ideas and revelations about themselves, the world, and their role within the world.

SYMBOLIC: identification with a historical figure or famous person accompanied by such as having a vision of a cruxifix or angel.

INTEGRAL: a religious or mystical experience usually involving god or some other supernatural force or being
SLEEP
A change in our consciousness to an UNCONSCIOUS state, characterized by a change in our ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY

Sleep can be distingued in four stages and one sub stage.
STAGES OF SLEEP
STAGE 1: beginning of relaxation

STAGE 2: irregular brain activity

STAGE 3: emition of high amplitude waves

STAGE 4: eyes move back and forth behind lids, called REM sleep or rapid eye movement

We dream during REM sleep, it takes about an hour and a half to get there

The rest of the night is characterized by alternating periods of REM and non REM sleep.
OUR SENSES: SIGHT, HEARING, TOUCH, SMELL, TASTE
SIGHT: recieving light energy

HEARING: Recieves sound energy or sound waves

TOUCH: recieves mechanical energy

SMELL: recieves airborne chemical energy

TASTE: recieves chemical energy
SENSORY PROCESS: SIGHT
visible light occupies wavelengths between 400 and 750 nanometers

Retina (back of eyeball) contains special cells called PHOTORECEPTORS that are responsible for transduction

Different wavelengths of light allow us to see different colors

1. Light enters eye through cornea
2. Light passes through pupil
3. Lens focuses light onto retina
4. Light energy is conducted into neural energy
SIGHT: PHOTO RECEPTORS
located on the back of the eyeball, are responsible for transduction. Cells contain chemicals called photopigments that are broken apart when traveling light waves make contact with them. This starts a reaction that sends a signal to the optic nerve. The signal then travels to the visual cortex of the brain, which is responsible to analyzing the stimuli.
TWO TYPES OF PHOTORECEPTORS: RODS AND CONES
RODS: very light sensitive, helps with our pheripheral vision

CONES: responds to different wavelengths of light, involved in color vision
1/2 BASIC THEORIES ON COLOR VISION: TRICHROMATIC COLOR THEORY
The retina contains three different types of cones (photoreceptors) that each respond to different wavelengths of light.
Short, Medium and Long wavelength cones, which when each are partially activated we see variations of three colors - blue, green and red.

SHORT WAVELENGTH CONES - respond to light around 440nm, or blue light

MEDIUM WAVELENGTH CONES - respond to light around 530 nm or green light

LONG WAVELENGTH CONES - respond to light around 560 nm, or red light

-OUR EXPERIENCE OF ALL COLORS ORIGINATES WITH THESE THREE BASIC CONE INPUTS-
2/2 BASIC THEORIES ON COLOR VISION: OPPONENT PROCESS THEORY OF COLOR VISION
The brain contains different types of neurons that respond differently to different colors.
SIGHT: FIGURING DISTANCES
Depth and distance are calculated by our visual system using two imputs: BINOCULAR and MONOCULAR CUES

BINOCULAR: Having two eyes provide information to the brain
-COnvergence - when your eyes are pointing inward the brain knows your looking at something that is close to you
-Stereoscopic vision- When the object in focus is in different locations depending on which eye is open.

MONOCULAR CUES: Only depend on one eye to send information to the brain. The object that casts a larger image on the retina is assumed to be closer.
SENSORY PROCESS: HEARING
Sound is measured by its AMPLITUDE or WAVELENGTH as well as the FREQUENCY and NUMBER OF WAVES PER UNIT TIME
-Amplitude - loudness
-Frequency - pitch or tone
THE PROCESS OF HEARING
Sound enters the ear through the PINNA, as it passes through the ear it eventuall reaches the EARDRUM, or TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.

The vibrating ear drum shakes three little bones, the HAMMER ANVIL AND STIRRUP which amplifies the vibration.

After the sound waves reach the inner ear, the COCHLEA, auditory transduction occurs.
TWO LARGE DIVISIONS OF THE HUMAN NERVOUS SYSTEM: THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM AND THE PHERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: consists of the brain and spinal cord

PHERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: nerves, neurons and neurotransmitters.
TWO TYPES OF NERVES THAT HELP THE CENTRAL AND THE PHERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM COMMUNICATE: SPINAL NERVES AND CRANIAL NERVES
SPINAL NERVES: travel from spinal cord to the muscles ad other body parts, carrying neural signals both to and from the spinal cord.

CRANIAL NERVES: involved in the muscular and sensory processes of the head and neck
THE PHERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM CONTAINS A SUBSYSTEM KNOWN AS THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM (ANS), WHICH IS DIVIDED INTO: THE SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM AND THE PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.
THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM IS RESPONSIBLE FOR
-REGULATING SMOOTH AND CARDIAC GLANDS, INVOLUNTARY ACTION SUCH AS REFLEXIVE MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS AND EVEN DIALIATION OF OUR PUPILS

SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM: involved in energetic activation of the body when we need energy. Ex- Fight or flight response.

PARASYMPATHETIC: deactivates the SNS after it has been engaged. Sometimes called the RELAXATION RESPONSE because the SNS is shut off and we return to normal functioning
THREE MAIN DIVISIONS OF THE BRAIN: FOREBRAIN, HINDBRAIN AND MIDBRAIN.
LOCALIZATION: there are specific parts of the brain for specific components of behavior
COMPONENTS OF THE FOREBRAIN: CEREBRAL CORTEX, LIMBIC SYSTEM, BASAL GANGLIA, THALAMUS, HYPOTHALAMUS
CEREBRAL CORTEX: Top part of the brain, divided into two called CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES and connected by the CORPUS CALLOSUM. DIVIDED INTO FOUR LOBES.

LIMBIC SYSTEM: involved in learning, memory and emotional behavior, and mating or reproduction.

BASAL GANGLIA: involved in control of movement

THALAMUS: "neural switchboard", a relay station for the different parts of the brain.

HYPOTHALAMUS: controls endocrine system, and works with limbic system to control FOUR F's, feeding, fleeing, fighting and sex.
COMPONENTS OF THE MIDBRAIN AND HINDBRAIN: TECTUM, TEGMENTUM, CEREBELLUM AND MEDULLA.
TECTUM: auditory and visual systems

TEGMENTUM: sleep, arousal, attention, muscle tone and reflexes

CEREBELLUM: motor movement and coordination

MEDULLA: vital functions of cardiovascular system and movement of skeletal muscles
FOUR STAGES OF SLEEP
STAGE 1; beginning of sleep, brain waves become less regualr

STAGE 2: irregular brain activity, short bursts of SPINDLES

STAGE 3: high amplitude DELTA waves, spend about an hour and a half here

STAGE 4: THETA WAVES, also known as REM sleep or DREAM sleep.
OUR SENSES
SIGHT: recieves light energy
HEARING: recieves sound enery or sound waves
TOUCH: recieves mechanical energy
SMELL: recieves airborne chemical energy
TASTE: recieves chemical energy