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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The meninges of the brain are _____ in origin.
mesodermal
The _____ or pachymenix is the thickest covering of the brain.
dura matter
The dura matter is 2 layered at sites of _____ and send ___ into the cranial cavity.
dura venous sinuses, septa
When the dura matter is 2 layered, the ____ attaches to the inner layer of the skull with no space, and the _____ is smooth, avascular and lined with mesothellium.
external periosteal, inner meningeal
The potential space between the dura and the skull is the ______.
epidural
The potential space between the dura matter and the arachnoid space is called the ____.
subdural
____ blood can potentially fill the epidural space, while ____ blood can potentially fill the subdural space.
arteriole, venous
The ____ is the septae that is sickle shaped and seperates cerebral hemispheres in longitudinal fissure.
faix cerebri
The ____ is the septae that lies in horizontal plane between the cerebellym caudally and the occipital lobe rostrally.
tenorium cerebelli
The cranial and brain area above the tentorium cerebelli are referred to as the ____, and contain the ____ and ____ cranial fossae.
supratentorial, anterior middle
The cranial and brain area below the tentorium cerebelli is reffered to as the _____, and contain the _____ cranial fossae.
infratentorial, posterio
The ____ cerebelli extends in midline from posterior surface of tentorium cerebelli, seperating the 2 cerebellar hemispheres.
faix cerebelli
The septae function to ____.
reduce/prevent brain displacement with head movements
The ____ artery is the most important arterial supply of dura matter.
middle meningeal artery
The middle menengieal artery is a branch of the ____ and enters the middle cranial fossa through the ____.
maxillary artery, foramen spinosoum
The _____ is the only structure inside the cranium that is sensitive to pain.
dura matter
The supratentoial dura is supplied by the _____ nerve, while the the infratentorial dura is supplied by branches of the vagus and _____ spinal nerves.
trigeminal, C1-C3
The arachnoid ____ drains the CSF from the subarachnoid space into dural venous sinuses.
villi (one way valves)
Enlarged spaces in the subarachnoid spaces are called ____.
cisterns
The leptomeninges is composed of the ____ and ____.
arachnoid, pia
The ____ is thought to serve as a channel for CSF movement into the brain tissue.
perivascular space (pia participating with arachnoid)
The spinal dura matter ends at ___ vertebral level forming the _____.
S2, filum terminale externum
____ dura is single layered and lacks periosteal layer, and is has an actual epidural space.
spinal
Spinal epidural space lies between ____ and _____ layer of dura.
vertebral periosteum, meningeal
A convex bleed is a _____, a concave bleed is a _____, and a bleeding within the cistern areas is a ____.
epidural, subdural, subarachnoid( venous or artery)
The choroid plexus is made up of the _____, _____, and _____.
fenestrated endothelial layer of choroid cappilary wall, pia membrane, choroid epithelial cells (tight junction)
The choroid epithelial cells with tight junction form a barrier btwn the ____ and _____.
CSF, blood
The _____ are 7 structures in CNS lacking BBB, and serve as _____.
circumventricular organs, channels for transporting large hormonal molecules to target organs in brain (3rd ventricle)
___ and ___ are actively transported into the CSF and ____ and ____ are removed.
Na+, Mg2+; K+, Ca2+
The ___ effect reduces traction on brain and spinal cord exerted by nerves and vessels.
buoyancy
The ____ effect dampens impact of trauma and violent movements on the brain and spinal cord.
cushion (buffer)
The ____ effect serves to remove metabolites from the CNS.
catabolic
The ___ effect circulate neuroactive hormones or drugs that cross BBB.
transport
The ____ effect provides stable ionic environment for the CNS.
ionic
CSF contains ____ protein, ____ glucose, K+, and Ca++, and _____ Na+, Cl-, and Mg++ when compared to the blood serum
very little, slightly less, slightly greater
Turbid and xanthrochromia CSF indicate _____ and ____, respectively.
acute bacterial meningitis, subarachnoid bleeding
Glucose is ____ in acute bacterial meningitis and chronic fungal CNS, and ____ in viral infections.
low, normal
High albumin levels and high gama globulin levels in CSF are scene in _____ and ____, respectively.
acute bacterial meningitis, MS
____ hyrdocephalus is when CSF flow into dura venous sinuses is impeded in subarachnoid space or by obstruction at level of arachnoid villi.
communincating
_____ hydrocephalus is when CSF flow is obstructed anywhere within the ventricles and subarachnoid space.
non communicating
____ is due to stretching of cranial nociceptor mechanism.
headaches
___ is due to activation of chemoreceptor trigger zones in area postrema.
nausea
____ is due to activation of emetic trigger zones in medulla.
vomiting
_____ is secondary to drop in cardia output slowing of heart rate caused by pressure on cardiotonic nuclei in medulla.
dizziness
_____ with or without poor motor coordination is due to pressure on motor cortex as well as cerebellar cortex.
motor weakness
____ is dues to pressure on brain stem reticular activating reticular nuceli.
coma/ loss consciousnes
In raised ICP, bradycardia is due to pressure on _____ nuceli in the ____.
cardiotonic, medulla
In raised ICP, hypertension is due to activation of _____ nuceli in the ____.
preganglionic (in cardiotonic zones), medulla
In raised ICP, areflexia is due to pressure on _____.
spinal motor neurons in spinal cord
In raised ICP, papillodema is due to raised intraocular pressure in ______ space along ____ nerve.
subarachnoid, optic