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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The ____ is considered the mass reabsorber of the kidneys.
Proximal tubule
A constant 60-70% of the filtered load is reabsorbed in the ____.
proximal tubule
Tubular fluid entering and leaving the proximal convoluted tubule is ____ to the plasma.
isotonic
The loop of henle reabsords ____% with fluid leaving ____ to the plasma.
10-25%, hypotonic
The distal tubule reabsorbs ___ salt than water, and the fluid leaving is ____ to the plasma.
more, hypotonic
The collecting duct is _____ to salt and water.
minimally
The ____ is the major site of regulation of salt and water reasbsorption.
collecting duct
The ____ utilizes the extracellular osmolarity gradient produced by the _____ to reabsorb water in the presence of antidiuretic hormone,
collecting duct, loop of henle
The ____ pathway is reabsorption between cells and occurs by _____ in response to concentrations and electrical gradients, as well as through ____.
paracellular, simple diffusion, bulk flow
The ____ pathway refers to movement of molecules accross cell membranes via ______ and _____.
transcellular (apical and basolateral), carrier, channels
Transepithelial transport of sodium is due to a combination of ____ and ____. (S1, PCT)
transcellular, paracellular
On the ____ membrane sodium influx is coupled with other molecules.(S1, PCT)
apical (creates negative lumen)
On the basolateral membrane sodium is moved ____ of the cell through _____. (PCT)
out, Na-K ATPase (enables apical influx)
In early portions of the proximal tubule the lumens ____ potenital causes Na+ to move paracellularly _____.
negative, outward (blood to lumen)
In S3 of the proximal tubule the lumens _____ potential from ____ reabsorption causes Na+ to move from _____ to _____.
positve, Cl-, lumen, blood
Chloride is primarily reabsorbed via a paracellular pathway in the ____ of the PCT because of the lumen-____ voltage resulting from _____ reabsorption.
S1, negative, Na+
_____ reabsorption of chloride dominates in the _____ of the proximal tubule.
trancellular, S3
Chloride influx occurs on the ____ membrane via coupling with cellular _____. (S3)
apical, anions (HCO3-)
Chloride efflux occurs on the ____ membrane via _____ and _____.
basolateral, Cl channels and K+/Cl- cotransporter
When Na is reabsorbed ______ happens so the TF/P for Na changes ____.
water follow, changes little
The TF/P ratio for Cl- ______ along the early proximal tubule because it is dependent on _____.
increases, voltage gradient supplied by Na+
The TF/P ratio of bicarbonate, amino acids, and glucose _____ as Na+ is reabsorbed.
decrease
The descending limb is _____ to Na and Cl.
minimally permeable
The thick ascending limb ____ Na and Cl via the _____ located on the apical membrane.
reabsorbs, Na/K/Cl tritransporter (also Na through Na-H exchanger and paracellular and paracellular)
In the thick ascending limb Na is ____ though the Na/K/Cl tritransport and the _____, as well as through ____ pathways.
reabsorbed, Na-H exchange, paracellular (apical)
Sodium leaves the basolateral side of the thick ascending limb via the ____ and Cl leaves via the ____, and reenters via ____.
Na-K ATPase, Cl channels, exchange with bicarbonate
In the distal convoluted tubule, Na and Cl are _____ by the _____ cotransporter.
reabsorbed, Na/Cl cotransporter
In the collecting duct ____ cells utilize an ____ channel on their apical membrane and a _____ on their basolateral membrane to reabsorb ____.
epithelial Na- channel, Na-K ATPase
In the collecting duct ____ opens up _____ channels and the activity of _____ to reabsorb Na.
aldosterone, Na, Na-K ATpase
Because of Na _____, a negative transepithelial voltage gradient is generated across the principle cells, which facilitates ____ reaborption via paracellular diffusion.
negative, chloride
In the _______ cells chloride is reabsorbed trascellular utilizing cl/HCO3 exchanger in the ____ membrane and Cl channels in the ____ membrane.
beta-intercalated cells (collecting duct), apical, basolateral
Water reabsorption in the proximal tubule depends on _____ and _____.
Na reabsorption (AQP1), Starling-forces (high oncotic pressure in peritubular capps)
Minimal water reabsorption occurs in the distal nephron unless ____ is present.
ADH (AQP2 collecting duct)
In the _____ reabsorption of Na and water can be regulated independently.
collecting duct
The ability of the proximal tubule to reabsorb a constant proportion of the filtered Na is called ______.
glomerulotubuler balance (Due to GFR on starling forces across peritubular caps)
_____, ____ and ____ increase Na retention.
Aldosterone, Sympathetic nerve stimulation, ADH
Factors decreasing Na retention are ____ and ____.
ANP/BNP, prostoglandins
Aldosterone has a greater effect on the _____, and increases ____ in apical membrane and _____ activity in the basolateral membrane.
cortical collecting duct, ENaC, Na-K ATPase
Sympathetic stimulation reduces _____ via ____ receptors, stimulates ___ release via _____ receptors on granular cells, and directly by stimulating ____ and ___ via ___ receptors.
RPF and GFR (afferent arteriole constriction), alpha 1, renin, beta 1, Na/H exchangers, Na-K ATPase, alpha 1
ADH direct effect on Na reabsorption is through activating ____ in the loop of henle and ____ on the apical membrane of principle cells.
Na/K/Cl tritransporter, Na channels
ANP and BNP decrease Na reabsorption through _____ which increases RPF and GFR, and inhibiting Na reabsorption in ____ cells.
vasodilation renal arterioles, collecting duct
Prostoglandins _____ Na retention by _____.
decrease, vasodilation that increases RPF and GFR