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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The preload is the end ____ presure, while the after load is the _____ presure.
diastolic, aortic
As the heart relaxes, the mitral valve opens as soon as the pressure in the left _____ is greater than the pressure in the left _____.
atrium, ventricle
As the ventricle continues to ____, the rate of blood flow into the ventricle is high.
The period of low ventricular filling is called ____.
Toward the end of ____, the atrium contracts.
The mitral valve closes when as the ______ begins to contract and pressure rises.
The aortic valve does not open until pressure in the _____ exceeds the pressure in the ______.
ventricle, aorta
_____ is the time that both mitral and aortic valves are closed and the volume of the ventricle is filled and cannot change.
isovolumetric contraction
The blood in the ventricle during isovolumetric contraction is known as the _______.
end diastolic volume
_____ represents ventricular filling and a brief period just prior to filling at which time the ventricles are relaxing.
_____ represents the time of contraction and ejection of blood from the ventricles
The start ventricular volume of about 50 ml is known as the _____.
end systolic volume
When the pressure in the _____ exceeds the pressure in the _____ , the aortic valve opens.
ventricle, aorta
Blood still flows from the ventricle to the aorta, even though the ventricle has less pressure, do to the ____.
Bernoulli effect
Just as the _____ closes there is a little reflux of blood into the ventricle.
The kinetic energy of this reflux of blood is converted into a pressure wave that increases the pressure in the aorta producing the ____.
aortic valve, dicrotic notch
_____ is the time that both mitral and aortic valves are closed and the volume of the ventricle is low and cannot change.
isometric relaxation
60sec/heart rate= ____
length of the cardiac cycle (period)
S1 (lub) = vibrations from closure of ____ and ____ valves .
mitral, tricuspid
S2 (dub) = vibrations from closure of ____ and ____ valves.
aortic, pulmonary
As heart rate increases, the period of the cardiac cycle _____.
As heart rate increases, the length of ____ in diastole is most reduced.
At high heart rates and in cases of cardiac disease, ____ contraction becomes important with up to ___% of the stroke volume entering during its systole.
atrial, 40%
_____ is the volume of blood pumped by one ventricle in one minute.
cardiac output
____ is the volume of blood pumped by one ventricle in one beat.
stroke volume
Cardiac output= ____ x ____
stroke volume, heart rate
Stroke volume = ____ - _____
end diastolic volume, end systolic volume
Ejection fraction is used to measure the efficieny of the heart by estimating the function of the ____.
left ventricle
Ejection fraction is equal to the _____/ ______.
stroke volume, end diastolic volume
A normal ejection fraction is above ____%.
_______ is used to determine the EDV and ESV.
two dimension echocardiography
_______ is used to determine velocity of blood, obstructions, or narrowing of vessels / valves.
doppler ultrasound
_______ can measure pressures in the various vessels and chambers (systemic veins, RA & RV)
cardiac catherization
If the heart becomes enlarged, even if the amount of blood being pumped by the left ventricle remains the same, the relative fraction of blood being ejected _____.
The pressure in the pulmonary veins or left atrium is approximated by the _____ pressure.
A wedge pressure exceeding 15 mmHg suggests _____, ______, ______, _____, ______ or other cardiac defects.
mitral stenosis, mitral insufficiency, severe aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation, left ventricular failure
______ is narrowing of the mitral valve, prevents proper opening during diastolic filling.
mitral stenosis
_____ is incomplete closure of the mitral valve resulting in the backflow of blood from the left ventricle to the left atrium of the heart.
mitral insuficiency
_____ is narrowing of the aortic valve, reducing blood flow into the aorta.
Severe aortic stenosis
_______ occurs when the aortic valve does not close tightly, allowing backflow of blood into the LV.
aortic regurgitation
_____ is when the heart loses its ability to pump blood efficiently, leading to fluid build up in the lungs due to congestion of the veins of the lungs.
left ventricular failure
Contraction of the spiral layer draws the _____ and _____ valves toward the ____ of the heart.
The more powerful circular muscle layer of the heart _____ the heart.
Contraction of the _____ causes the septum to bulge into the right ventricle,
aiding in RV pumping action
______ is the maximum end diastolic volume.
Maximum ventricular volume
______ is the difference between the stroke volume at some point in time and the maximum stroke volume.
Reserve volume
_______ is the end diastolic volume after a maximal contraction. This might be obtained from a heart treated with norepinephrine.
Residual volume