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57 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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The cross sectional area of vessels ____ from arteries to cappilaries because of ____.
increase, vascular branching
The velocity of blood flow through the ____ is very slow to facilitate the exchange between the cells and blood.
capillaries
Most of the blood (__%) is in _____ circulation.
85%, systemic
Only ___% of blood in systemic circulation is in the high pressure, ____ portion.
15, arterial
____ contain the majority of the blood (___%) and serve a reservoir function that can be utilized in conditions of low blood volume and/or ____.
Veins, 65, pressure
Blood pressure changes very little along the ______, while a large pressure drop is found along the ____, although both have the same volume of blood flow.
large systemic arteries, systemic arterioles
____ are the major source of vascular resistance.
Arterioles
____ is the pressure difference along the length of the vessel, which is responsible for blood flow. For system circulation it is the ____ minus the ____, which is equal to ____ mmHg
Driving, aorta (120mmHg), right atrium (0 mmHg), 120 mmHg
The pressure difference across the blood vessel wall that influences vessel diameter because of compliance.
Transmural
The pressure created by the weight of the blood.
Hydrostatic
____ pressure increases when moving from supine to standing position.
hydrostatic
____ circulation is a high pressure/resistance system, while ____ circulation is low.
Systemic, pulmonary
Systemic and Pulmonary circulation have a blood flow of approximately _____.
5L/ min
Left atrium pressure is equal to ____, while the right is equal to ____.
5-10 mmHg, -4 to 4 mmHg
Left ventricular diastolic pressure is equal to ____, while the right is equal to ____.
0 mmHg, 0 mmHg
Left ventricular systolic pressure is equal to ____, while the right is equal to ____.
120 mmHg, 25 mmHg
Aortic diastolic pressure is equal to ____, while the pulmonary artey diastolic pressure is equal to ____.
80 mmHg, 8 mmHg
Aortic systolic pressure is equal to ____, while the pulmonary artey systolic pressure is equal to ____.
120 mmHg, 25 mmHg
Alveolar pressure is equal to ___ mmHg.
10 mmHg
Mean arterial pressure is equal to _____ x_____.
blood flow, total vascular resistance
Resistance to blood flow is determined primarily by the ____ of the blood vessels.
radius
If the radius of a vessel decreases by 3, the resistance will ____ by a factor of ___.
increase, 81
Increased sypathetic nerve stimulation causes ____ of arterial smooth muscle, a ____ in arteriolar radius, and _____ in vascular resistance.
contraction, decrease, increase
Because the capillary system is in a parallel system, the entire system provides ___ resistance, while each capillary has a relatively ____ resistance.
low, high
Redistribution of blood flow in instances such as excercise does not cause a massive drop in blood pressure is due to ____.
resistance in parallel
Veins are _____ compliant than arteries, meaning that a great change in pressure will have a ____ effect on volume.
more, mild
____ in sympathetic nerve stimulation causes venous smooth muscle contraction, _____ venous compliance _____ the volume they contain.
Increase, decreasing, reducing
Decreasing venous compliance displaces blood toward the ____ and ___ cardiac output.
heart, increases
The ____ effect is the recoiling of the ____, which provides the additional push to the blood, allowing blood to keep moving while the ventricles refill.
Windkessel Effect, aorta
Left ventricular systolic pressure is equal to ____, while the right is equal to ____.
120 mmHg, 25 mmHg
Aortic diastolic pressure is equal to ____, while the pulmonary artey diastolic pressure is equal to ____.
80 mmHg, 8 mmHg
Aortic systolic pressure is equal to ____, while the pulmonary artey systolic pressure is equal to ____.
120 mmHg, 25 mmHg
Alveolar pressure is equal to ___ mmHg.
10 mmHg
Mean arterial pressure is equal to _____ x_____.
blood flow, total vascular resistance
Ohms Law
Resistance to blood flow is determined primarily by the ____ of the blood vessels.
radius
If the radius of a vessel decreases by 3, the resistance will ____ by a factor of ___.
increase, 81
Increased sypathetic nerve stimulation causes ____ of arterial smooth muscle, a ____ in arteriolar radius, and _____ in vascular resistance.
contraction, decrease, increase
Because the capillary system is in a parallel system, the entire system provides ___ resistance, while each capillary has a relatively ____ resistance.
low, high
Redistribution of blood flow in instances such as excercise does not cause a massive drop in blood pressure is due to ____.
resistance in parallel
Veins are _____ compliant than arteries.
more
____ in sympathetic nerve stimulation causes venous smooth muscle contraction, _____ venous compliance _____ the volume they contain.
Increase, decreasing, reducing
Decreasing venous compliance displaces blood toward the ____ and ___ cardiac output.
heart, increases
The ____ effect is the recoiling of the ____, which provides the additional push to the blood, allowing blood to keep moving while the ventricles refill.
Windkessel Effect, aorta
Arterial blood pressure oscillates between a high called _____ with a value of ____ and a low called ____ with a value of ____.
Systolic, 120, diastolic, 80
The difference between systolic and diastolic pressure is known as the ____.
pulse pressure
Pulse pressure ____ with arteriosclerosis because arterial compliance _____.
increases, decreases
Pulse pressure ____ with aortic valve stenosis because stroke volume _____.
decreases, decreases
Pulse pressure ____ with patent ductus arteriosus and aortic regurgitation because stroke volume _____.
increases, increases
Bulk flow is equal to ______/ ______.
change in pressure, resistance
Cardiac output= ____ x ____, or according to Ficks principle is equal to the rate of oxygen consumption per minute/ _____ minus _____.
oxygen content of arterial blood, oxygen content of venous blood
The forces moving water out of a capillary are _____ and _____, while ____ and _____ move water into the capillary.
capillary hydrostatic, interstitial oncotic, interstitial hydrostatic, capillary oncotic
At the arteriolar end ____ pressure is greater than ____ pressure so water moves out of the capillaries.
capillary hydrostatic, plasma oncotic
At the venous end ____ pressure is greater than ____ pressure so water moves into the capillaries.
plasma oncotic, capillary hydrostatic
During hemorrhage, capillary hydrostatic pressure decreases do to decrease in ____ and the reflex increase of _____.
MAP, TPR
MAP= ____ + 1/3(___-___)
Diastolic pressure, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure
Compliance= ____/____
volume, pressure
If Reynolds number is less than ____, blood flow will be laminar.
2000