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117 Cards in this Set

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List 5 different types of organisms.

bug
dog
plant
fungi
bacteria

The smallest units of organisms that carry on the function of the organism.
cell
Anything an organism responds to is a(n)________ .

stimuli or stimulus

A(n)________ is a characteristic that makes an organism able to survive better.
adaptation
What is the regulation of an organism's internal environment.

homeostasis

What do organisms need to survive.

water
energy
oxygen or carbon dioxide
food

An organism's development is (are) ________.
all of the hanges that go on in its lifetime.
Living things are made up of what percentage of water?
70% to 90%
All living things ________.

grow and develop
reproduce
adjust to their surroundings
use enegy

The main source of energy for living organisms is ________.
the sun
What is the length of time an organism is expected to live?

life span

You have changed in size since your birth. What do we call this?

growth

You have changes in ways other than your size this is called _________.
development
What is the process in which new organisms replace themselves?
reproduction
When you touch a hot pan on the stove with your hand and you quickly move it away from the heat it is called a __________.

response

When a bright light shines in your eyes, you close your eyes. The light is a ______________.
stimuli
Your teacher drops a book, and you jump. What do we call your reaction.

a response

Spontaneous generation is the theory that...

living things come from non-living things (like rags in the corner)

Redi, Spallanzni, Pasteur and other scientists proved the theory of______________.
Biogenesis - living things come from other living things
Something in an experiment that can change is called ________.

the variable

List the steps of the scientific methods.
Question
Collect Information
Hypothesis
Experiment
Collect Data
Analyse Data
Conclusions
A scientific ________ is an explanation of things based on many observations.
law
A(n) ________ is a prediction that can be tested. ...

hypothesis

What metric mesurement is a scientist likely to use to measure long distances?
kilometer - km
What metric mesurement is a scientist likely to use to measure the volume of a liquid?
liter
________ is the use of scientific knowledge to solve problems of society.
technology
Are viruses are living.
no

Do viruses do not make or eat food.

no

True/False



Viruses are a piece of hereditary material (DNA) covered by a protein.

true

True/False



Viruses can be seen with a simple microscope.

false

True/False



The protein that covers a virus (the protein coat) gives a virus it's shape.

true

True/False



Viruses with different shapes are covered by different proteins.

true

True/False



Viruses are classified by the kind of organism the kind of organism they infect.

true

True/False



Viruses are often named for the person who discover them.

true

What is the process to make a new virus?

attach to a host cell - inject - take control - make viruses - release viruses to infect other cells

True/False



Viruses must be inside a host cell to reproduce.

true
When a virus infects an organism but waits until later to become active it is called a _____________virus.

latent

When a virus infects an organism and becomes active imediately is is called an _____________virus.
active
What kind of organisms can viruses infect?

plants
animals
fungi
bacteria

True/False



There are no medicines to cure viruses.

true

A shot or other medicine that is given before you get a virus to precent it is called a _________.

vaccine
What are vaccines made out of?
They are often made out of killed viruses.
What are some viruses we can prevent with a vaccine?
Polio
Chicken Pox
Measels
Small pox

True/False



Some viruses have no vaccines but scientists and doctors are working to develop them.

true

True/False



Viruses can be helpful.

true

What do you get before you get AIDS?
HIV
What does AIDS stands.
Auto Immuno Deficency Syndrome
How does AIDS make you sick?
AIDS allows the body to be infected by many organisms that can cause disease.
Why is it hard to develop a vaccine for AIDS.
Because the DNA in the HIV virus is frequently mutating.

Which organisms do not have cell walls?

animal cells
All living things are made up of _____.
cells

What are the 3 main idea of the cell.

All living things are made of cells.
All cells come from other cells.
Cells are the basic unit of all living things.
What is one advantage of electron microscopes over light microscope.

greater magnificatin

If a cell contains no defined nucleus, it must be a ______________.

prokaroyte

In a chloroplast, the green pigment that traps light is the ______________.

chlorophyll

The cell membrane is called a fluid mosaic model because_______________.
it is flexible like a fluid and it is made of many little parts like a mosiac.
Selective permeability allows a cell to _________

select what goes in and out of the cell

A plasma membrane ___________.
protects the cell and holds everything inside
Cell structures that contain digestive enzymes are called_____________.
lysosomes
In a cell, the sites of protein synthesis
ribosome
Organelle where molecules are broken down to release energy is the _____________________.
mitochondria
The system of folded membranes that modify proteins and moves them to the cell membrane to be spit out is the ____________ _______________.

golgi body

System of highly folded membranes that go through the cell to transport substances is the ______________.
endoplasmic reticulum
Central membrane bound structure that contains DNA.
nucleus
Chlorophyll containing organelle that captures light.
chloroplast
Membrane bound organelle used for temporary storage.
vacoule
All of the structures found in the cell that do different jobs for the cell
organelles
Structure that is rigid and surrounds the membrane in plants and bacteria but not in animals
cell wall
List the different kinds of organic compounds
protein
carbohydrates
lipids
nucleic acids
protein
mostly found in meat, broken down to build muscle,enzymes and hormones
carbohydrates

things like potatoes and breads they store energy in cells for immediate use

lipids

fats and oils the act as insulation and store energy in cells (long term storage)

nucleic acids
make up DNA - stores information
All organic compounds are made of branched chains
some are long chains, some are branched, some are rings
When food enters the body where does it go?
It is broken down into molecules before it goes into the blood to be taken to the cells.
What is a suspension?

Blood is an example of a suspension.



It is a solution that seperates into layers if it is not constantly mixed.

Lipids are important for insulating organisms.
True

True/False



Protein and lipids are the same type of organic compound.

false

What is water made of?

1 molecule of oxygen and 2 molecules of hydrogen

Protons
found in the nucleus
positive charge
mass of one
neutrons
found in the nucleus
nutral (no) charge
mass of one
electrons
found around the nucleus
negative charge
So small their mass isn't measured
Two atoms bonded together form a _____________.
molecule or compound
Atoms can be bonded together by sharing electrons this is called __________________bonding.
covalent
The cell membrane sometimes captures large molecules this procss is called______________.
endocytosis - requires energy to make the membrane surround the lare molecules and pull them inside the cell
Selective permeability is the cells ability to ________________.
let some things in and keep some things out
What part of the cells is selectively permeable?
the cell membrane

True/False



Most of the time things move from high to low.

true
If you need to move something from high to low you _________________.
do not need any energy - passive transport
If the cell uses energy to move things in or out it is called ___________________.
active transport and it is moving things from LOW to high
Is glucose a small molecule.
glucose is made on many atoms it is a large moleculeIs
Is water a small molecule.
water has only 3 atoms it is a small molecule
Small molecules do not usually need energy to enter or exit the cell.
true
Water moves into the cell by a special process called ________________.
osmosis
Why doesn't a plastic bag makes a good membrane?
it would keep everything in or everything out cells need things and need to get rid of waste
If a molecule is expelled (pushed out) from the cell it is called _______________.
exocytosis
Why do cells divide?
repair
replace
reproduce
grow
Why don’t all cells divide at the same time?
some have to do the work of the cell while others divide
What is asexual reproduction?
reproduction of a whole new organism that is an exact copy of the organism it came from
What is mitosis?
the process that divides the nucleus of the cell producing 2 new daughter cells
What is DNA?
genetic material, It is made of nucleic acids and has all the information the cell needs
When DNA is in the form of chromatin it is usually during what phase?
interphase
When DNA is in the form of sister chromatids it is usually during what phase?
metaphase
What do centromeres do?
hold the sister chromatids together
What do centrioles do?
hold on to the ends of the spindle fibers and help move the chromosomes
What would happen if there were no spindle fibers?
the chormosomes wouldn't get moved to the middle of the cell during metaphase or moved apart in anaphase

Mitosis - Which phase comes 1st?

IPMAT - interphase

Mitosis - Which phase comes 2nd?

IPMAT - prophase

Mitosis - Which phase comes 3rd?

IPMAT - metaphase

Mitosis - Which phase comes 4th?

IPMAT - anaphase

Mitosis - Which phase comes last?

IPMAT - telophase

Mitosis - In what phase are the sister chromatids lining up in the middle?

metaphase

interphase

Phase ins cell cell cycle



Think inbetween
chromatin in nucleus
cell doing it's job

prophase

prepare
chromosomes doubling
chromosomes thickening
centrioles appear in animal cells

metaphase

middle
chromosomes are now sister chromatids
line up in the middle
spindle fibers pulled them to the middle

anaphase

apart
sister chromatids are pulled apart by the spindle fibers

telophase

two new cells that are exactly the same.