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71 Cards in this Set

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Arteries(lg and med)- arterioles - capillaries - venules - veins
What is the general pattern of blood flow through vessels?
Tunica interna (intima)
inner coat (layer)
The deep coat of an artery or vein consisting of a lining of endothelium, basement membrane, and internal elastic lumina.
Tunica interna (intima)
Endothelium (simple squamous)
Internal elastic lamina (layer)
Endothelium (simple sqamous)
lines all cardiovascular system
Internal elastic lamina (layer)
a layer of elastic tissue in the tunica interna of the artery wall.
Tunica media
middle coat
thickest layer
consists of elastic fibers and smooth muscle
Smooth muscle
arranged in rings around the lumen.
Elastic fibers
plentiful
high compliance
can easily stretch and expand walls of arteries without tearing.
Tunica externa (adventititia)
outer coat of artery wall
Elastic fibers
Colagenous fibers
Elastic fibers
elastic tissue that separates the tunica externa from the tunica media
Collagenous fibers
thick dense fiber that "holds" the artery wall open.
Elasticity
after a vessel contracts, it can go back to its original shape.
Contractility
to shorten
Vasocontriction
a decrease in the diameter of the lumen of a blood vessel.
based upon the influence of the sympathetic nervous system (s.n.s)
Vasodilation
the increase in diameter of the lumen of a vessel.
Large, Elastic or Conducting arteries
Walls thin compared to their diameter
More elastic vs. smooth muscle in middle coat - thus called "elastic" arteries
Walls stretch to accommodate cardiac output thus "milking blood"
Conduct blood to medium sized arteries.
Large, Elastic or Conducting arteries
EXAMPLES
Aorta
Brachiocephalic
Common carotid
subclavian
vertebrals
Common illiac
Medium sized, Muscular or Distributing arteries
Walls thick due to large amount of smooth muscle
More smooth vs. elastic fibers in miidle coat - thus called muscular arteries
Capable of greater vasocontriction and vasodialation.
Distribute blood from large arteries to arterioles
Medium sized, Muscular or Distributing arteries
EXAMPLE
Axillary
Brachial
Radial
Splenic
Mesenteric
Femoral
Popliteal
Tibial
Anatomoses
A junction of 2 or more vessels that supply a given body region, organ, etc.
Collateral circulation
An alternate route
occurs because of anatomoses
it takes over if hemorrage happens.
Arterioles
Almost microscopic
Artery end of 3 poorly developed layers
Capillary end of endothelium and scattered smooth muscle fibers
Control blood flow into capillaries
Capillaries
Microscopic
Site of gas, nutrient and waste exchange btwn blood and cells
Connect arterioles and venules
Walls of a single layer of simple sqaumous epithelium (endothelium)
Capillaries
Metarteriole
True capillaries
Continuous capillaries
Fenstrated capillaries
Sinusoids
Metarteriole
Directly connect arterioles and venules
Proximal portion contains smooth muscle
Distal portion lacks smooth muscle fibers - called "thoroughfare channel"
True capillaries
Arise from arteriole or metarteriole
"precapillary sphincters" present
DO NOT directly connect arterioles and venules - are the side routes
Continuous capillaries
Endothelial cells separate by intercellular clefts
Found in skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, conn. tissue and lungs.
Fenestrated capillaries
Have fenstrations (pores)
Found in kidneys, villi of small intestine, choroid plexuses of brain
endocrine glands
Sinusoids
Wider than most capillaries; twisted or contorted; space btwn. endothelium; basement membrane incomplete or lacking
Lined by specialized cells
Connect arterioles and venules
also in ant. pituitary, spleen, and red bone marrow
Venules
group of small capillaries within a tissue reunite to form small veins
Capillary end of endothelium and conn. tissue
Vein end also had tunica media (middle coat)
Veins
tunica interna and media thin vs. arteries
Tunica externa thick vs. arteries
Many are valved thus helping to return blood back to heart
Vascular sinus
Lacking smooth muscle, tunica media and externa
Walls incomplete
supported by surrounding conn. tissue
Vascular sinus
Coronary sinus
Intracranial vascular sinuses
Intracranial vascular sinuses
venus canals between folds of crania dura - such as "sup. sag. sulcus" and others
Blood Reservoirs
Abdominal veins esp.
venous sinsuses
Carry up to 60% of blood volume
Vasocontriction due to S.N.S stimulation can shift blood where needed or reduce blood loss
Cerebral circulation
Circle of Willis (cerebral arteriole circle)
Cerebral circulation Circle of Willis (cerebral arteriole circle)
equalize blood pressure to the brain and provide alternate routes for blood flow to brain should the arteries become damaged.
Vertebrals
Internal Carotid
What 2 major arteries supply the brain?
Vertebrals
passes through the transverse processes of the 6th - 1st cervical vertebrae and enters the skull through the foramen magnum.
Internal carotid
supplies structure in the skull
has no branches in neck
run deep within the neck
Internal carotids
Basilar artery
Circle of willis is formed by the anatomoses of ______ and _________.
Anterior cerebrals
from int. carotids
Posterior cerebrals
from the basilar artery
Ant. communicating arteries
connect ant. cerebrals
Post. communicating arteries
connect post. cerebrals to int. carotid
Hepatic Circulation
extends from gastrointestinal tract to the liver
Portal system
a vascular system that begins and ends in capillaries
Hepatic artery
Hepatic portal vein
What 2 major vessels supply the liver?
Hepatic artery
a branch of the celiac trunk (axis of artery)
Hepatic portal vein
detours venous blood from gastrointestinal organs and spleen through liver before it returns to the heart
Part small intestine
Part colon (LI)
Part stomach
Superior mesenteric vein drains blood from ______, ______,and ________.
Part small intestine
Part colon
Inferior mesenteric vein drains _______ and ________.
Splenic (lineal)
drains blood from stomach, pancreas, and L.I.
Gastric veins
drains blood from stomach
Cystic vein
drains blood from gallbladder
Major veins contributing to the hepatic portal vein
Sup. mesenteric
Inf. mesenteric
Fetal circulation
placenta (55% of output goes to the placenta). the umbilical cord connects the placenta to the fetus, blood from the fetal heart enters the placenta via the umbilical artery the umbilical vein contains oxygenated blood as versus the artery in newborn or adults containing oxygenated blood. there are two umbilical arteries and one umbilical vein. the pressure of the right heart chambers in the fetal circulation is higher than that of the left chambers, as a result, blood from right atrium passes through the foremen ovale to the left atrium, and blood from pulmonary artery passes through the ductus arteriosus to the aorta.
Placenta
The exchange of material circulations occur which forms the inside the mother's uterus and attaches to the umbilicous of the fetus.
Intervillous spaces
containing maternal blood in the placenta
Umbilical cord
contain blood vessels that branch into capillaries into placenta
how fetus gets its nutrients
Umbilical arteries
branches of the int. iliac arteries are w/in in the umbilical cord.
Carries Deoxygenated blood and waster from fetus to the placenta
Umbilical veins
Carries oxygenated blood and nutrients from maternal blood supply to fetus.
Divides into 2 veins
1st branch joins hepatic portal to supply the liver
2nd branch bypasses liver with most of blood; joins the inf. vena cava.
Ductus venuous
bypasses liver
carries most blood to inf. vena cava
Foramen ovale
most blood bypasses R. ventricle through foramen ovale - opening in the interatrial septum
most blood passes non-functional fetal lungs.
Ductus arteriosus
Conducts most blood from pulmonary trunk to aortic arch thus further bypassing the non-functional fetal lungs.
lateral umbilical ligaments
Umbilical arteries become _______.
ligamentum teres of liver
Umbilical vein becomes _______.
"afterbirth"
Placenta is delivered as ______.
Ligamentum venosum
Ductus venosus becomes ________.
fossa ovalis
Foramen ovale closes to become ________.
Ligamentum arteriosum
Ductus arteriosus becomes __________.