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27 Cards in this Set

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Define seizure.
A seizure is a state of pathologic hypersyncrhonous behavior of a large number of neurons associated with altered neurologic function; an episode of abnormally synchronized and high-frequency firing of neurons that results in abnormal bheavior or experience of the individual
Define epilepsy.
a condition in which there is a tendency to have recurrent unprovoked seizures (about a 1-2% incidence)
Lifetime risk of having a single seizure is:
a) 1-2%
b) 5-10%
c) 10-15%
d) 15-20%
Lifetime risk of having a single seizure is 10-15% of the population
True or False? Epilepsy is the 3rd most common neurological disorder in adulthood?
False. Epilepsy is the 4th most common neurological disorder in adulthood and is the MOST common neurological condition in childhood (4.3-9.3/1000)
True or False? Onset of epilepsy most commonly occurs during the early 20's.
False. Onset of epilepsy most commonly occurs during childhood and adolescence.
True or False. The incidence of epilepsy is higher among prison inmates than in the general population.
True. There is a high incidence of epilepsy in prisons (approximately 4x the general population). reduced impulse control + lower SES = criminal behavior
What is kindling?
Kindling refers to the susceptibility to electrophysiologic dysfunction in the area in the contralateral hemisphere homologus to the original site of discharge.
A brief simple partial seizure that is experienced by the patient with no outward behavioral manifestation is called an ___.
A brief simple partial seizure that is experienced by the patient with no outward behavioral manifestation is called an AURA. They may occur in isolation, or they may serve as a warning for a larger seizure, when patients have seizures that typically begin in one region of the brain before spreading.
What are some symptoms (auras) patients might report when they are experiencing seizures arising from medial temporal limbic structures.
1) a visceral sensation of rising in the epigastric area
2) feeling of deja vu
3) strange unpleasant odors
4) feelings of extreme fear and panic
True or False? Auras that include odors and/or panic are thought to arise from the hippocampus.
False, Odors and panic are thought to arise from the amygdala and nearby cortex, rather than the hippocampus
This type of EEG pattern is the normal dominant/background activity over the occipital region and is about 8-13 CPS/hertz.
Alpha
This type of EEG pattern slows in elderly and in nearly every brain-based neurological illness.
Alpha
This type of EEG pattern is prominent with concentration, anxiety, and under the effects of minor tranquilizers.
Beta
This type of EEG pattern is lost with eye opening, falling asleep, and medication that affects mental function.
Alpha
Presence of this type of EEG pattern is detected in children and everyone entering deep sleep, but is generally absent in healthy alert adults.
Theta/Delta
This type of EEG pattern lies over the frontal lobes.
Beta
This type of EEG pattern may indicate a degenerative illness or metabolic derangement if observed in a generally health adult
Theta/Delta
This type of EEG pattern is > 13 hertz.
Beta
This type of EEG pattern often slows in the elderly, and in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease.
Alpha
This type of EEG pattern ranges from 4-7 hertz.
Theta
This type of EEG pattern ranges from 1-3 hertz.
Delta
A focal presence of this type of EEG pattern may suggest a lesion in that region.
Theta/Delta
True or False? EEG is useful to detect or exclude structural lesions.
False, EEG is NOT helpful in detecting or excluding structural lesions.
These type of waves are present on EEG in metabolic/toxic encephalopathy and hepatic/renal failure delirium.
triphasic waves
these types of waves are often present in subacute sclerosing parencephalitis and CJD and are often seen as myclonic jerks.
periodic complexes
True or False. EEG is not useful in differentiating locked-in syndrome and persistent vegetative state.
False. EEG is useful in differentiating locked-in syndrome and persistent vegetative state (slow and disorganized)
If an EEG is conducted following ECT, what is often observed?
EEG s/p ECT often looks post-ictal (similar to GTC seizure), and slow wave activity may continue for 3 months.