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66 Cards in this Set

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What is meant by the term "size" in relation to to sediments?
not uniquely defined, depends on measurement, sieve diameter, sedimentation diameter

Sedimentary textures
What is textural maturity? What processes produce textural maturity?
degree to which it approaches end result, removal of clays, good sorting, roundness of grains

Sedimentary textures
Many sediments and sedimentary rocks show a preferred orientation of the particles. What are the causes and characteristics of tihs orientation in gravel, sands, and shales?
elongate/flat particles, affects packing, imbrication, Qtz. high flow, mud-compaction

Sedimentary textures
Why are boundary values important?
govern interaction of flow with sediment

Fluid Dynamics & sediment transport
What are the principal modes of sediment transport?
traction, saltation

Fluid Dynamics & sediment transport
What processes operate to entertain sediement?
.

Fluid Dynamics & sediment transport
The concept of hydraulic equivalence applies to the settling velocity of particles.
two particles regardless of size/density etc. settle @...

Fluid Dynamics & sediment transport
What fluid properties are important in the entrainment of sediment?
velocity and shear

Fluid Dynamics & sediment transport
What sediment properites are important in the entrainment of sediment?
size and density

Fluid Dynamics & sediment transport
What are the modes in which sediment is transported?
traction and saltation

Fluid Dynamics & sediment transport
How does a particle of sand become entrained and transported?
no movement > random > moves some > all

Fluid Dynamics & sediment transport
How is the amount of sedimient moving as bedload of a river or beach calculated?
it is the traction + saltation

Fluid Dynamics & sediment transport
How is the amount of sediment moving as suspended load calculated?
it is impossible

Fluid Dynamics & sediment transport
Grading, is formed under what condition?
turbidity currents

Sedimentary structures
Flute casts, is formed under what condition?
erosion of mud by turbulent flow

Sedimentary structures
Ripple marks, under what conditions are they formed?
.

Sedimentary structures
Tabular cross-bedding, under what conditions are they formed?
migration of bed formed

Sedimentary structures
Trough cross-bedding, under what conditions are they formed?
sinous/lunate dunes

Sedimentary structures
Parallel laminations, under what coniditions are they formed?
.

Sedimentary structures
What in "flow regime"?
interpretation of structures and sequence of structural, general strengh

Sedimentary structures
What can ripples tell you about the environment in which they were depostied?
net accumulation

Sedimentary structures
What can dunes tell you about the environment in which they were deposited?
High flow conditions

Sedimentary structures
What do "climbing ripples? indicate about the conditions in which they were deposited?
high net accumulation

Sedimentary structures
What useful information do isopach maps provide?
thickness, tectonic/during/erosion

Sedimentary methods
What useful information do structure contour maps provide?
respects to datum, after deposition

Sedimentary methods
What useful information do cross sections provide?
2 dimensional relationship emphasizes structure/stratigraphy

Sedimentary methods
What useful information do facies maps provide?
description

Sedimentary methods
What useful information do fence diagrams provide?
3d ...

Sedimentary methods
What is Walther's Laws?
laterally adjacent, vertically succesion

Stratigraphic relationships
What is transgression/regression?
sea level rise/fall

Stratigraphic relationships
How abundant are the gaps in the stratigraphic record?
very

Stratigraphic relationships
What is a facies model?
body of rock with specific characteristics - modern environments

Facies models
What are the componenets of a facies model?
physical, biological, stratigraphic

Facies models
What are the sedimentologic and stratigraphic characteristics of meandering river deposits?
least understood, channel ripples, point bar, fining upwards, migration, floods, low slope, vertical accretion

Facies models
What are the sedimentologic and stratigraphic characterics of aeolian dune deposits?
cross bedding

Facies models
What are the sedimentologic and stratigraphic characterists of beach deposits?
.

Facies models
What are the sedimentologic and stratigraphic characteristics of shallow marine deposits?
.

Facies models
What are the sedimentologic and stratigraphic characteristics of submarine fan deposits?
.

Facies Models
What is a lithostratigraphic unit?
observable, lithic character/stratigraphic position

formation = widely recognizable characteristics

Nomenclature
What is a chronostratigraphic unit?
time rock, serve as physical reference for all rock formed at sometime, ex. system (Cambrian)

Nomenclature
What is a geochronologic unit?
division of time based in rock record, ex. Period = System

Nomenclature
What is a biozone?
fundamental unit of biostratigraphy, taxon zone

Nomenclature
What is the Law of Superposition?
oldest layer is one the bottom
Describe three types of lithologic boundaries.
lithic change, unconformities, key beds, vertical grdations
How are geologic units correlated?
physical
1) walk out
2) mapping lithologies
3) tracing unformities

Chronologic
1) biostratigraphy
2) time marker

Correlation
Define diachronism, and give an example.
not the same age everywhere

Correlation
What methods are used for geophysical correlation?
a) wireline logs
b) seismic methods
c) magnetostratigraphy

Correlation
How can the absolute ages of period boundaries be determind?
.

Correlation
Which method has better resolution, radiometric dating or biostratigraphy?
all the same

Correlation
What is eustacy?
changes in sea level

Correlation
What are the probable causes of large-scale, long-term changes in sea level?
major plate interactions

Correlation
Parasequence
conformable succession bounded by marine flooding or correlative surfaces

Correlation
Parasequence set
stacking of parasequence, bounded by flooding, genetically related, depends on rate of sediment accumulation

Correlation
Sequence
genetically related, conformable, conformities, or correlative surfaces

Correlation
What is the fundamental principle of sequence stratigraphy?
Super position. Use surface to subdivide ...

Correlation
What is an ophiolite sequence? What is its significance?
produced on spreading ocean flow, deep sea sediment, pillow basalt, gabbros, ultra mafics

Tectonics/Sedimentation/Stratigraphy
What are the stratigraphic and structural characteristics of subduction zones?
collision, deformation, folding/faulting, submarine fans deposition, gravity slide

Tectonics/Sedimentation/Stratigraphy
What are the stratigraphic and structural characteristics of aulacogens?
failure of part of sea floor spreading, subsidence and accumulation
What are the stratigraphic and structural characteristics of continetal margin arcs?
subduction/modern reef building
deformation of shallwo marine...
abundant flysch sedimentation
plutonism
deformation back arc
molasse depostion in back
What is a sedimentary basin?
significant localized accumulation of sediment, significant subsidence,

foreland - denver, mountain building
cratonic - williston, no connection with tectonics
What are two important weathering techniques?
solution - dissolution evaporate

oxidation - reaction with oxygen, Fe/Su

Weathering/Clay
Which of the common rock-forming minerals are least stable in a weathering environment?
gypsum/calcite...

quartz

hematite/goethite/zircon/rutile

Weathering/Clay
What characteristics appear to control the stability of minerals during weathering?
how close the ...equilibrium, move structure..weak surfaces = less stable

Weathering/Clay
How are clay minerals classified?
structure
two layer = bound tightly
three layer = expanding - SMETCTITE or
none expanding- ILLITE

Weathering/Clay
What are the basic structural components of clay minerals?
tetrahedra

Weathering/Clay
What factors appear to control the type of clay minerals formed during weather?
climate and weathering conditions, NOT SOURCE ROCK

Weather/Clay