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98 Cards in this Set

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Clastic
composed of particles
Chemical
crystallized out of solution (also known as Precipitates)
Organic
formed by living organisms or directly from organic matter
Clay
so small, its too fine to even "feel"
Silt
can't see but can feel the "grit"
Sand
sizes from "can see" up to small peas/BB's
Gravel
from pebbles, cobbles, to boulders
Sediments
solid particles (clasts)
Lithification
"to make a ROCK"
- creates texture
- Shale
- Fine grained rock
Mud- silt and clay-size particles: most used!
Siltstone
- Fine grained rock
silt sized particles, they're gritty!
Claystone
- Fine grained rock
clay sized particles, they're smooth
Mudstone
- Fine grained rock
kinda variation of shale with less sorting (I wouldn't use this term)
Lithification
-Compaction of clasts
-Cementation of clasts
-Crystallization from solutions
Compaction of clasts
decrease in pore space
In Clastic Sedimentary Rocks
Clastic texture
In Chemical Sedimentary Rocks
Crystalline texture
Clastic
Composed of either fragments, pieces, or clasts
Chemical
material that was dissolved and comes out of solution
Organic
Material that was the direct result of living organisms
Sedimentary Breccia

(Largest Particles)
Angular fragments, close to surface
Conglomerate

(Largest Particles)
Rounded fragments transported farther
Greywacke
- Fine grained Matrix
- Usually from turbidity currents
Arkose
(sandstone)
poorly weathered > 25% feldspar
Quartz sandstone
maturely weathered
Coral
limestone from direct deposit of CaCO3 by organisms
Coal
-Develops from plant matter deposited in an anaerobic environment, first peat, then with compression
-Usually more than 90% organic; not composed of true minerals!
Chert
both from nodules in limestone (true chemical) and organic: bodies of siliceous tests of marine organisms
Evaporites
like limestone, from evaporation of marine basins
Rock Gypsum
-Calcium sulfate
-Moh's hardness scale of 2
Rock Salt
Sodium Chloride, softer than calcite, 3 plains of cleavage at right angles!
Carbonate Rocks
these could be clastic or organic as well!
Recrystallization
Chemical sedrox often differ from clastic type by texture- not particle-like but crsytalline texture
Dolmite
Replaced in ground water solutions or primary- supersaturated warm shallow marine basins
Limestone
made of calcite- from sea water or calcite rich solutions from ground water to "fresh" water lakes
Inorganic varieties
true chemical sedrox...from solutions
Biochemical varieties
from living organism: CORAL
Bioclastic
If particles from living shells with transport: may form coquina or fossiliferous limestone
Beds
A primary structure
-formed as a "deposit" also called "Strata"
-bedding planes
Other Primary structures
-Cross bedding
-graded bed
-mud cracks
-ripple marks
-fossils
Ripple marks
Steep slope faces down current and the gentle slope faces up current
Rain drop marks
Primary structures may also include
minerals
Primary structures do no include
Lithification
Secondary Structures form during...
diagenisis
Seconday Structures are also called...
Seconday Structures
-Nodules
-Concretions
-Solution cavaties where fossils may dissolve out by ground water action
Formations
Group of different sedimentary rocks representative of a particular depositonal environment
geographic locations
Formations were named after
formations
Distinctive from neighboring rock units
Sedimentary contact
Transitional with other deposits
Other contacs
Unconformities or gaps in the geologic record/ no translation
top and bottom
Horiziontal planes =
Sorting
distribution of sizes
poorly sorted
a mix of sizes, weakly layered
Good sorting to well sorted
uniform in size and well layered
Unsorted
no order of layering or size
Shape
rounded or angular
Surfaces
smooth/polished to "frosted", etched
Source area
closeness based on size and angularity of particles
Environment of Deposition
the surroundings or conditions from which a sediment is deposited
Transitional
-between Continental and Marine

includes: beaches and coasts, lagoons, reefs, mangrove swamps (deltas?)
Marine
-formed in ocean basins; vary by depth

From continental shelf, continental slope to abyssal depths
geographic locations
Formations were named after
formations
Distinctive from neighboring rock units
Sedimentary contact
Transitional with other deposits
Continental
usually fresh- water deposits on the continents

includes: deserts, glaciers, streams with lakes and deltas, ground water, mass wasting
Beds
=strata; seperated by bedding planes at contacts between different rock layers
Laminations/laminae
Layers within the horizontal beds that may be a different angles/ inclined as cross beds
horizontally
Stratification or layering of sediment
- conformable
- continuous deposit
- unconformable (gaps!)
Contacts between beds may be...
Lakes
-fine sediments
-often organic and peaty: may form Coral
Glaciers
-Unsorted from ice: till
-Sorted from melt water: Outwash (like stream deposits)
Deltas
coarsening upward deposits
Reef
Organic complexes that may be more marine and carbonate rich
Lagoon
quiet brackish water- may be organic, rich, peaty, and can result in Coal... but poor quality
Beach, Barrier Island, Dune
uniform and well sorted...usually
Transitional
Between Continental and Moraine
Common Continental Deposits
- Desserts
- Streams
- Glacial Environments
Deserts
evaporate deposits and dune fields
Talus Slope
base of cliffs
Alluvial fan
related to stream deposits
Streams
channel (flow) and flood plain (sheet flow)
Lake
a standing body of water
Delta
The exstension of a stream into a standing body of water
Glacial environments
Poorly sorted from ice (till) to well sorted from melt water (outwash)
source area by wind
Loess removed from
interior basins
Deserts evaporate deposit in
Evaporates
Crystalline and Chemical
Evaporates
Halite and Gypsum
Dunes
Wind blown sand
- Well sorted, well rounded, and frosted grains
high velocity streams
(Conglomerate)
Gravel to pebbles is...
very large
bed load can be
saltation
Farther down stream channels favor sand moved by
Sandstone
jumps in grains in flow
graded deposits
fines upward
Deep Marine to "abyssal" depths
-cold ocean depths may have high silica content
-planktonic organisms would build their shells of chert- like material - chert deposits
Shallow Marine Shelf- shale to limestone
Can include evaporites in dying marine basins: Gypsum to Halite (evaporate from 80 to 90 %: enrichment)
-ocean basins
-in submarine fans from submarine canyons
Turbidites on steep slopes in...