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9 Cards in this Set

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define sedation vs hypnosis?
sedation = decrease in activity- to calm down
hypnosis- to make drowsy and induce "natural sleep"
Phenobarbitol (barbituates)? to what receptor does it bind to depress the CNS? Effect on BP, contractility, and baroreceptor?
its a GABA agonist, leading to major inhibiton (hyperpolarizes membrane w/ Cl- current)
Decreases BP by decreasing preload return (vasodilation)
Decreases force of contractility
Desensitizes pCO2 respoonse so can't compensate
phenobarbitol used for TX of? metabolized by? what is it used to treat with its narrow therapuetic window?
Anti-convulsant therapy.
metabolized by p450 and incredibly narrow therapuetic window...hence, can OD
Benzos? mechanism in comparison to barbituates which account for the incredible safety?
also bind to GABA as an agonist, resulting in decreased BP, contractility, etc. Reason they are safe is because BENZO's DONT knock out barorerceptor response... Can accomodate for deacrease in HR
Benzo pharmacokinetics? how metabolized in liver? Why so many?
sedatives/anti-anxiolytics metabolized in liver to N-desalykated...differ because of T 1/2, dosing, etc
If OD on benzos (although it is nearly impossible?
give flumazenil
Zolpidem-Ambien? What is it? Effect on sleep architecture compared to benzos?
a non-benzo sedative/hypnotic. Great because it has a very short half life (2-6 hrs) compared to 40-50 of most benzos. Can be used effectivly to induce sleep. Little affect on sleep architecture unlike benzos which screw up normal cycling!
How do you treat short term insomnia (3 days-3 weeks)?
Long term in the absence of a stressor? Med condition?
Examine sleep hygeine, psychological interventions, use of hypnotics

First, do full medical work-up. Look for hyperthyroidism.
Treat with a benzo...be careful to ween off over time.
Acute alcohol ingestion. Toxic to what? Any uses?
Major risk of death acutely? How to treat that situation?
Heart, GI tract-leading to ulcers, liver cirrhosis, and fetal alcohol syndrome.
It's used in the treatment of some cancer patients as a neurolytic agent.
Major risk of aspirating GI contents. Also, it takes over p450.
Treat with ABCs and aspirin prophalaxis.