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48 Cards in this Set

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where two beds meet
contact
evidence of significant erosion or absense in time between two beds
unconformity
Types of unconformities
Angular, disconfomity, paraconfomity, nonconformity
beds below unconformity are dipping where the beds above are not dipping at the same angle
angular unconfomity
beds above and below the unconformity are parallel but there is a significant amount of erosion between them
disconformity
beds above and below seem to match but there is a significant time jump between
paraconformity
metamorphic or igneous rock below with sedimentary rock above
nonconformity
no evidence of erosion or absence of time
conformable
sharp change between two layers
abrupt
not a sharp change btween lithologies
gradual
types of gradual conformities
intercaladen, progressive gradual
thin beds of overlying lithology are within the underlying lithology
intercaladen
a more or less uniform change in grain size and composition between lithologies
progressive gradual
upper and lower surfaces of a boundary get closer and closer until they converge
pinch out
several pinch outs in one area
intertonguing
a break in deposition
hiatus
minor break in sedimentation, usually in fluvial systems
diastem
repeated patterns in sedimentation
cyclic sedimentation
cycles are controlled by something local in the basin
autocyclic
cycles are controlled by something outside the basin
allo cyclic
shoreline moves landward
transgression
reasons for transgression
sea level rise, basin subsides, cutoff in sediment supply
shoreline moves seaward
regression
reasons for regression
sea level fall, land uplifts, increase in sediment supply
break up and coming back together of continents every 2-400 million years. Large scale changes
1st order
changes in ocean volume such as mid-ocean ridges putting out more basalt happening every 10-100 million years
2nd order
least understood cycle happening every 1-10 million years
3rd order
happening every 200-500 thousand years usually because of milankovich cycles
4th order
happening every 10-200 thousand years like milankovich cycles
5th order
types of milankovich cycles
eccentricity, procession, obliquity
a cycles depending on howeliptical the earth's orbit is. happening every 200-400 thousand years
eccentricity
changing every 19-23 thousand years. Which way the earth's axis is facing.
procession
the degree of tilt in the earth changing every 41 thousand years
obliquity
fluctuations in sea level are quicker and larger in magnitude. more ice sheets are present and earth is overall cooler
ice house
warmer, more CO2 in the atmosphere with sea level not changing as much
green house
distinct rock body type generally refering to a depositional environment
facies
types of facies
lithofacies, biofacies, microfacies, subfacies
facies based solely on lithology
lithofacies
facies based on fossil characteristics
biofacies
facies based on microscopic eveidence
microfacies
facies within a facies
subfacies
facies superimposed side by side can be found in a vertical sucession barring a long unconformity
walther's law
local sea level changes
relative sea level change
global sea level change
eustatic sea level change
What was the sea level at 20,000 years ago?
120 km below todays
guide to standard stratigraphic usage
stratigraphic code
sea level curve with a higher frequency.
haq curve
seaward dipping reflections
clinoform