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29 Cards in this Set

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2 methods for describing the form of a grain.
Krumbein's spericity method and Zingg's classification
fabric where the grains overlap like shingles on a roof
Imbrication
reverse grading
grains are stacked from fine to course
lowest velocity to highest velocity bedforms

dunes, chutes and pools, planar bedding, antidunes, ripples
ripples, dunes, planar bedding, antidunes, chutes and pools
structures common to a meandering river
ripples, trough cross bedding, laminations
association of trace fossils that are recurrent in time and space and reflect environmental conditions such as water depth, salinity and nature of the substrate
ichnofacies
thrombolite
build up of algal mats without distinct laminations
most common accessory mineral in sandstones
feldspar
arkose sandstones must contain what mineral?
potassium feldspar
next to silica, what is the most common cement within sandstones?
calcite
What properties would a texturally mature sandstone have?
more matrix, rounded, well sorted
3 main deatures to look for when identifying a paleosol
root traces, soil horizons, soil structures
irregular network of planes surrounded by more stable aggregates of soil
cutans and peds
two most important properties of a fluid to determine how they will transport a mineral?
viscocity and density
entrainment
beginning of transport when material is picked up by flow
what assumptions does the Hjulstrom diagram make?
plane bed, 1 m wide, only quartz
washload
material transported through suspension but the material isn't coming from the bed but upstream
autosuspension
with enough movement, as the particle moves downstream it picks up more material, gaining more weight and density which causes more turbulant water
ideal turbidite sequence
bouma sequence
dispersive force for grain flows
grain to grain interaction
grain size from smallest to largest.
1 phi, 2mm, 64 microns, -8 phi
64 microns, 1 phi, 2mm, -8 phi
skewness
degree of symmetry or assymetry of the grain size distribution
contains a large portion of unstable or metastable clasts
petromict
almost exclusively fluvial or littorial (beach) origin
quartzose
composed of a single type of clast
oligomict
formed from teh breakdown of older rocks via weathering and erosion
epiclastic
most commonly composed of rip-up clasts
intraformational
soil horizons
O - almost completely organic
A - Mineral matter mixed with some humus
E - light colored mineral particles Zone of leaching
B - Accumulation of clay from above
C - partially altered parent material
9 common ichnofacies
Nereites, Zoophycos, Cruziana, Skolithos, Psilonichnus,
Scoyenia, Glossifungites, Trypanites, Teredolites