Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/95

Click to flip

95 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Cultural Interpreter
a person who can create bridges of understanding between school and home culture, don't have to speak language of home culture but must understand it
Respite Care
the short term care of a family member with a disability to provide relief for parents from caretaking duty
Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)
science in which procedures derived from the principles of behavior are systematically applied to improve socially significant behavior to a meaningful degree and to demonstrate experimentally that the procedures employed were responsible for the improvement in behavior
Asperger Syndrome
developmental disorder characterized by normal cognitive and language development with impairments in all social areas, repetitive stereotyped behaviors, preoccupation with atypical activities or items, pedantic speech patterns, and motor clumsiness; included in autism spectrum disorder
Autism Spectrum Disorders
group of five related developmental disorders that share common core deficits or difficulties in social relationships, communication, and ritualistic behaviors; differentiated from one another primarily by the age of onset and severity of various systems; includes autistic disorder, asperger syndrome, rett syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, and PDD-NOS
Autistic Savant
exhibits extraordinary ability in a specific area such as memorization, math, music, while functioning at the lever of MR in all other areas
Childhood disintegrative disorder
does not begin until after age 2-10, medical complications are common
Discrete trial training
instructional format involving a series of three part trials: 1. an antecedent stimulus (flash-card with 2+2=?), 2. student response (4) 3. feedback
double blind, placebo controlled study
procedure used to control for expectancy effects by subjects and bias by researchers in studies evaluation the effects of a treatment or intervention; some subjects receive the actual treatment being tested; others receive a placebo but don't know which they are getting (they are blind), the researchers don't know who gets what either so its double blind
echolalia
the repetition of what other people say as if echoing them; characteristic of some children with delayed development, autism, and communication disorders
facilitated communication
augmentative communication in which a facilitator provides assistance to someone in typing or pointing to vocabulary symbols; typically involves an alphanumeric keyboard on which the user types out his message one letter at a time. to date, research designed to validate FC has repeatedly demonstrated either facilitator influence (correct or meaningful language is produced only when the facilitator knows what should be communicated) or no unexpected language competence compared to the participants' measured IQ or a standard language assessment
pervasive developmental disorders-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS)
children who meet some but not all criteria for autistic disorder
rett syndrome
neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood characterized by normal early development followed by loss of purposeful use of hands, distinctive hand movements, slowed brain and head growth, fait abnormalities, seizures, and MR; affects females almost exclusively
aphasia
loss of speech functions; often, but not always refers to inability to speak b/c of brain lessons
articulation disorder
a child is at present not able to produce a given sound physically; the sound is not in his repertoire of sounds
augmentative and alternative communication (AAC)
a diverse set of nonspeech communication strategies and methods to assist individuals who are unable to meet their communication needs through speech; includes sign language, symbol symbol systems, communication boards, and synthetic speech devices
language disorder
impaired comprehension and/or use of spoken, writeen, and/or other symbols
language
a system used by a group of people for giving meaning to sounds, words, gestures, and other symbols to enable communication with one another; languages can use coval or nonvocal symbols
morpheme
the smallest element of a language that carries meaning
morphology
concerned with the basic units of meaning in a language and how those units are combined into words
phoneme
the smallest unit of a sound that can be identified in a language. 45 in the English language
phonological disorder
a language disorder in which the child produces a given sound correctly in some instances but does not produce the sound correctly at other times
phonology
linguistic rules governing language's sound system
pragmatics
study of the rules that govern how language is used in a communication context
semantics
the study of meaning in a language
speech
a system of using breath and muscles to create specific sounds for communicating
stuttering
fluency disorder of speaking marked by rapid-fire repetitions of consonant of vowel sounds
syntax
the system of rules governing the meaningful arrangement of words in a language
voice disorder
abnormal production and/or absences of vocal quality, pitch, loudness, resonance, and/or duration, which is inappropriate for an individual's age/sex
american sign language (ASL)
a visual gestural language with its own rules of syntax, semantics, and pragmatics; does not correspond with written or spoken English (used in US and Canada)
Audiogram
a graph of the faintest level of sound a person can hear in each ear at least 50% of the time at each of several frequencies
Audiometer
a device that generates sounds at specific frequencies and intensities; used to examine hearing
auditory training
a program that works on listening skills by teaching individuals with hearing impairments to make as much use as possible of their residual hearing
conductive hearing loss
hearing loss caused by obstructions in the outer or middle ear or malformations that interfere with the conduction of sound waves to the inner ear; can often be corrected surgically or medically
deaf
the result of a hearing loss severe enough so that speech cannot be understood through the ears alone, even with a hearing aid; some sounds may still be perceived
decibel
the unit of measure for the relative intensity of sound on a scale beginning at zero; zero Db refers to the faintest sound a person with normal hearing can detect
hard of hearing
level of hearing loss that makes it difficult, although not impossible to comprehend speech through the sense of hearing alone
Hertz (Hz)
a unit of sound frequency equal to one cycle per second; used to measure pitch
oral apporach
a philosophy and approach to educating deaf children that stresses learning to speak as the essential element for integration into the hearing world
Otitis media
an infection or inflammation of the middle ear that can cause a conductive hearing loss
residual hearing
the remaining hearing of a person who is deaf
sensorineural hearing loss
hearing loss caused by damage to the auditory nerve or the inner ear
speech reception threshold
the decibel level at which an individual can understand half of the words during a speech audiometry test; the SRT is measured and recoded for each ear
speechreading
process of understanding a spoken message by observing the speaker's lips in combination with information gained from facial expressions, gestures and context of situation
total communication
teaching deaf combining oral speech, sign language, and fingerspelling
accomodation
the adjustment of the eye for seeing at different distances; accomplished by muscles that change the shape of the lens to bring an image into clear focus
binocular vision
vision using both eyes working together to perceive and image
cataract
a reduction of loss of vision that occurs when the crystalline lens of the eye becomes cloudy or opaque
cortical visual impairment
decreased vision or blindness due to known or suspected damage or malfunction of the parts of the brain that interpret visual information
field of vision
the expanse of space visible with both eyes looking straight ahead, measured in degrees; 180 degrees is considered normal
glaucoma
an eye disease characterized by abnormally high pressure inside the eyeball; if left untreated it can cause total blindness, but if detected early most cases can be arrested
legally blind
visual acuity of 20/200 or less in the better eye after the best possible correction; it means that the eye can see clearly at 20 feet what the normal eye can see at 200 feet
low vision
visual impairment severe enough so that special educational services are required; a child with low vision is able to learn through the visual channel and generally learns to read print
ocular mobility
the eye's ability to move
orientation and mobility
the ability to establish one's position in relation to the environment and the ability to move safely from one point to another
refraction
the bending or deflection of light rays from a straight path as they pass from one medium to another; used by eye specialists in correcting vision
tunnel vision
visual impairment in which a person has good central vision but poor peripheral vision
absence seizure
a type of epileptic seizure in which the individual loses consciousness, usually for less than half a minute, can occur frequently
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
a fatal illness in which the body's immune system breaks down; at present there is no known cure for AIDS or a vaccine for the virus that causes it
assistive technology
any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain or improve the functional capabilities of children with disabilities
asthma
a chronic respiratory condition characterized by repeated episodes of wheezing, coughing and difficulty breathing
ataxia
poor sense of balance and body position and lock of coordination of the voluntary muscles; characteristic of one type of cerebral palsy
athetosis
a type if CP characterized by large, irregular, uncontrollable twisting motions; the muscles may be tense and rigid or lose and flaccid; often accompanied by difficulty with oral language
attention deficit/hyper activity disorder
diagnostic category of the American Psychiatric Association for a condition in which a child exhibits developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity
cerebral palsy
motor impairment caused by brain damage, which is usually acquired during the prenatal birth period or during the birth process; can involve a wide variety of symptoms and range from mild to severe; neither curable nor progressive
clean intermittent catheterization (CIC)
a clean (not sterile) catheter inserted into the urethra and advanced into the bladder and remains until urine is released into the bag
complex partial seizure
a brief period of inappropriate or purposeless activity; 2-5 minutes but doesn't remember it
cystic fybrosis
an inherited disorder that cuases a dysfunction of the pancreas, mucus, salivary and sweat glands; causes severe long term respiratory difficulties; no cure
diabetes
chronic disease in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin, a hormone needed to convert sugar, starches and other food into energy
epilepsy
condition marked by chronic and repeated seizures, disturbances of movement, sensation, behavior, and/or consciousness caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain; can usually be controlled with medication, although the drugs may have undesirable side effects; can be temporary or life long
generalized tonic-clonic seizure
most severe type of seizure, in which the person has violent convulsions, loses consciousness and becomes rigid; grand mal seizure
HIV
virus that causes aids
hydrocephalus
an enlarged head caused by cerebral spinal fluid accumulating in the cranal cavity; often causes brain damage and severe retardation; a condition present at birth or developing soon afterward; can sometimes be treated successfully with a shunt
hypertonia
muscle tone that is too high tense and concentrated muscles
hypotonia
muscle tone that is too low, weak and floppy muscles
individualized health care plan (IEP)
component for students with special health care needs
meningocele
type of spina bifida in which the covering of the spinal chord protrudes through an opening in the vertebrae but the chord itself and the nerve roots are enclosed
muscular dystrophy
a group of diseases that gradually weaken muscle tissue; usually becomes evident by the age of 4 or 5
myelomengocele
a protrusion on the back of a child with spina bifida, consisting of a sac of nerve tissue bulging through a cleft in the spine
neuromotor impairment
involves the central nervous system, affecting the ability to move, use, feel, or control certain parts of the body
occupational therapist
a professional who programs and/or delivers intstructional activities and materials to help children and adults with disabilities learn to participate in useful activities
orthopedic impairments
impairment of the skeletal system (bones, limbs, joints, and associated muscles)
paraplegia
paralysis of lower part of the body, including both legs; usually results from injury to or disease of the spinal cord
physical therapist
a professional trained to help people with disabilities develop and maintain muscular and orthopedic capability and make correct and useful movement
quadripelgia
paralysis of all four limbs
shunt
tube that diverts fluid from one part of the body to another; often implanted in people with hydrocephalus to remove extra cerebrospinal fluid from the head and send it to the heart of intestines
simple partial seizure
sudden jerking motions with no loss of consciousness; may occur weekly, monthly or 2x a year
spina bifida
a congenital malformation of the spine in which the vertebrae that normally protect the spine do not develop fully; may involve loss of sensation and severe muscle weakness in the lower part of the body
universal precautions
a set of safety guidelines (wearing protective gloves) that interrupt the chain of infection spread by potential biohazards such as blood and bodily fluids
closed head injury
caused by the head hitting a stationary object with such force that the brain slams against the inside of the cranium; stress of this rapid movement and impact pulls apart and tears nerve fibers or axons of the brain
deaf-blindness
any combination of hearing and visual impairments that causes such severe communication, developmental, and educational needs such as the individual cannot be accommodated in a special ed program designed solely for children with hearing or visual impairments
functional behaviors assessment
systematic process of gathering info about the functions a problem behavior serves for an individual; that then guides the design of three basic types of interventions: indirect assessment, direct descriptive assessment, and functional analysis
open head injury
result of penetration of the skull, such as cause by a bullet or a forceful blow to the head with a hard or sharp object
severe disabilities
term used to refer to challenges faced by individuals with sever or profound MR, autism, and/or physical/sensory impairments combined with marked developmental delay; persons with sever disabilities exhibit extreme deficits in intellectual functioning and needs systematic instruction for basic skills such as self-care and communicating with others
traumatic brain injury
an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability; psychosocial impairments, or both adversely effects a child's educational performance