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46 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
#424- Atlantic Charter
President Roosevelt proposed the Antlantic Charter, trying to replace the failed League of nations
#425- United Nations
The group that replaced the League of Nations was the United Nations. The new organization was to be based in New York to ensure U.S. inclusion. The senate said that the U.S. would help to rebuild Europe.
#426- Cold War
The Cold War was a political war in which no military fighting actually wnet on. The Soviet Union was threating the Western World but no fighting came of it.
#427- Yalta Conference
At the Yalta Conference, Germany's future was decided. They decided to split Germany into four zones. There was an Allied Control Council to make joint decisions. Germany became a Cold War showcase for ideaologies.
#428- Geroge Kennan, "Long telegram", and Containment
Geroge kennan influenced American Policy in his Long Telegram. He said that the Soviets were ideological enemies of us and he said that we needed to contain the Russians.
#429- Truman Doctrine
In the Truman Doctrine, the president says, in font of joint congress, that we need to ai dany free countries tat are subject to foreign dominance.
#430- NATO
To stop the Soviet Troops, Truman created NATO which made the U.S., Canada, Great Briatin, France, Belgium, Iceland, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Norway.
#431- Iron Curtain
When Soviet Dominance spread across Eastern Europe, Churhill made his famous speech at Westminster College and said that an iron Curtain had descended upon Europe.
#432- Poland, Soviet Communism, and Katyn
The Soviets took over the Polosh governemtn making it a Polis Communist governemtn and there was nothing anyone could do. The Soviets knew the Poles hated them and they needed military force to enforce the communism. They killed 15, 000 Poles at the forst of Katyn at the start of the war.
#433- Marshall Plan
The Marshall Plan, which said that money would be given to the Eastern Countries of Europe by the Western Countries. This threatened Stalin greatly because the Eastern Countries under his control would be pulled to the Western Sities.
#434- Yugoslavia and Marshal (Josip) Tito
A civil war broke out in Yugoslavia because of political differences. In the end Josip Tito won and Yugoslavia became communist but Stalin didn't trust them.
#435- Aspects of Decolonization
The begining of decolonizationbegan when India declared independence from Britain and this created a domino affect. India was followe by Egypt and most of the rest of Africa and then by Indonesia, Vietnam and Algeria.
#436- Organization for European Economic Coopertion (OEEC)
The OEEC had the task of handling money given to Europe by the U.S. through the Marshall Plan. They also lowered barriers among the states and eliminated tariffs.
#437- European Coal and Steel Community
The ECSC was created in 1951 and in combined and administered the coal and steel resources of it's members: France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxemburg.
#438- European Economic Community i.e. Common Market
The members of the ECSC signed the Treaty of Rome which established the EEC. This eliminated trade carriers adn allowed for the transfer of goods and people throughout Europe. Britain, ireland and Denmark joined in 1973 in the first expansion.
#439- Maastricht Treaty/ European Union
The Maastricht Treaty of 1992 le to the establishment of a common currency called the Euro. The only exceptions were Denmark, Sweden and the UK. They changed the name of the EEC to the EU or European Union.
#440- Clement Attlee and Labour Party
At the end of the War, Churchill and his conservative party were replaced by the Labour Party and its leader, Clement Attlee. In britain they loved Churchill for his performance during the war but he wasn't the best during times of peace.
#441- England's national Health Service
In 1942, William Beveridge proposed a healthcare system where aorkers paid a weekly tax and got paid while they were sick and they got a good healthcare system. THe National Health Service was the highlight of this reform.
#442- Bloody Sunday and Irish Republican Army
The situation in Ireland worsened when British troops shot 13 Catholics in a Civil Rights movements. This became known as Bloody Sunday. this led to rvolts by groups sucha s the irish Republican Army against the presence of Britain in Northern Ireland.
#443- Margret Thatcher
The Labour Party's failure to deal with problems in the winter of discontent resulting in a Conservative revival and Margret Thatcher becoming th first Prime Minister. She imposed Thatcherism which included a tight hold over the money to reduce inflation, sharp cuts in the public spending, and taxes.
#444- Fourth Republic of France
the FOurth Republic was formed but they didn't make the office of president mor powerful like Charles de Gallue said they should if they didn't want to repeat the mistakes of the past.
#445- Fifth Republic of France
After the disaster in Algeria, de Galle was broguht back into politics. He held a plebiscite and formed the fifth republic. This contained the powerful presidency which de Gelle now held.
#446- France's independent Foreign Policy in the 1960s.
France maintained an indepedent foreign policy marked by it's withdrawa from NATO in 1966
#447- Frances 1968 student revolts
The Fench Youth were mad that the classrooms were too full because of more people wanting an education. The French Youth joined in a revolt with workers, but the two goups wanted different things so this didn't last.
#448- Francois Mitterand
In 1981 Socialist leader, Francois Mitterand was elected president. He sought to end unemployment rather then pursue radical plans for the social economic plan in France.
#449- Italy's Christain Democrats and Communists
After the fall of Moussilini's governemnt, Christain Democrats became the party of governemtn. The Communists remained a significant party thanks to the efforts by the founder Antonio Gramsci.
#450- Berlin Blockade and Airlift
A series of crisies would flare up over the devided city of Berlin. One was when the United States and Great Briatain force a currecny on them without Soviet approval. Stalin then blockaded the city from the west. Amrican General Clay took initiative and began to send supplies to the Germans by air. This continued until Stalin lifted the blockade in Nay 1949.
#451- Federal Republic of Germany and German Democratic Republic
The United States, Germany, and France agreed to unite their zones in what became known as the Federal Republic of Germany. The Soviets made their territory the Communist dominates German Democratic Republic. Stalin said tat Germany could be unified but it was rejected and West Germany Rearmed and joined NATO.
#452- berlin Wall
The East Berlin Police began to build a wall between East and West Berlin on August 13, 1961. This was th Berlin Wall. The crises of Berlin came to and end with both sides accepting the wall.
#453- Konrad Adenauer (Christain Democratic Union)
Konrad became the chancellor from 1949 to 1963 and tried to Wesernis West Germany in an attempt rid it of East German influence. He was the head of the Christain Demodratic Union.
#454- Wlly Brandt (Social Democrats)
During the Adenaeur/Ritter years, the Social Democrats looked like they were going to remain in a position of prmanent. They were successful because they dropped Marx's beliefs and because Willy Brandt was their leader. Brandt became chancellor and was the first social chancellor in Germany since 1930.
#455- Ostpolitik
Brandt found it necessary to reach out to the Soviets and he recognized East Germany as friendly state. He won the Nobel Prize in 1972 because in 1970 he kneeled in front of the Warsa monument in Pand.
#456- Helmut Schmidt (Social Democrat)
brandt's sucessor was Helmut Schmidt and he kept Germany stabel even through the oil crisis of 1973.
#457- Helmut Kohl (Christain Democratic Union)
Helmut Kohls succeeded in replacin Schmidt in 1982 and brought back the CDU
#458- Warsaw Pact and COMECON
The Soviets set up sattelites states in Eastern Europe to make sure they couldn't be invade again. They created the Warsaw Pact in 1955 to establish military ties with it's sattelite Countries. Then it created COMENCON to link their economies.
#459- Nikita Khrushchev and de-Stalinization
Nikita Khruschev was the successor to Stalin. He had a comppletel different view. He said the only reform could happen under the guidlines form Marx-Leninism. he successfully visited the U.S. but the tensions continued to grow when a U-2 American spy plane was shot down over Russia. It was only Kennedy's graceful handling of the situation that prevented the two nuclear powers from going to war.
#460- Prague Spring
By 1968 the dissatisfaction with the succession of Leonid Brezhnevled to the emergence of a refoem in 1968 in Chechoslavakia. The goal of this "Prague Spring" was to bring out a more humantistic socialism with limits suh as keeping the nation apart of the Soviet Bloc.
#461- Brehznev Doctrine
Breznev felt threatened by the prague Spring and wrote the Breznev Doctrine which said that the Soviets would help any communists European Country that was having trouble with internal strife.
#462- Solidarity and Lech Walesa
The Polish people were very stirred by the election of the Polish cardinal, Pope John Paul II. Two years later, a massive strike took place in the Lenin shipyard of Gdansk, led by Lech Walesa. The workers demanded the right to form an independent trade union. Solidarity, as they came to be called, survived the martial law and being outlawed by going underground. They had some aid from the Catholic Church. By 1989, the Polish economy was in such shambles that they had to call on Walesa's union for aid. The negotiations resulted in a new election and all of the communists were ousted from office.
#463- Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail was a reform minded person who took over the kremlins and indicated his opposition to the Brezhnev Doctrine.
#464- Chernobyl
the Soviet people were unhappy. The disasters of the invasion of Afghanistan and the nuclear power plant Chernobyl revealed the deplorable state affairs within the nation.
#465- glastnost
Gorbachev wanted to limit the extent of the change. he approved of the glastnost, or openess in debate.
#466- Perestroika
Gorbachev also allowed for the perestroika, an economic restructuring of the state, but he wanted these changes to be led by the communist party.
#467- Boris Yelstin
In 1990, Gorbachev appointed some hard-liners togovernemnt positions to make reform far less likely. This system failed partially because of his politcal opponent, Boris Yelstin.
#468- Sloboda Milosevic and ehtnic cleansing
The Muslims wanted to become apart of the bosnian state. The Serbs, however refused to allow this to happen because they didn't want to become a minority and, with the help of the Yugoslavian president, Slobodan Milosevic, carried out ethnic cleansing. This was the forced removal, and at times execution, of the Muslims in Bosnia.
#469- Dayton Accords of 1995
The Serbs fired shells into the streets of the Bosnian capital of Sarajevo. In turn, the Americans brokered the Dayton Accords which provided peace for a time.