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98 Cards in this Set

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#326 Marie Curie, Max Planck, Albert Einstein
In 1920 Marie Curie isolated radium. Ernest Rutheford explained that all atoms had a nucleus. max Planck discovered that energy did not flow continuously but was delivered in quanta. His work changed physics forever. Albert Einstein developed the theory of relativity.
#327- Freidrich Nietzsche
Philosophers like Friedrich Nietzsche said that society was ruled by religion and that we must kill God. His most famous work was Thus Spake Zarathustra. He said we need to break away from traditional morality. When he died his sister edited all of his work to say that he supported Hitler.
#328- Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud tried to use science to try and fight mental diseases. In his Interpertation of Dreams he says Dreams revealed the inner working of our subconscious. In Civilization and It's Discontens, he said that violence was at the heart of every human being and we can't suprees it forever.
#329- Edvard Munch
Edvard Munch was a painter who sought to reveal the emotions rather than prtray the way things looked on the surface. His most famous work is The Scream.
#330- Gustave Klimpt
Gustave Klimpt worked in Vienna which was one of the centers of of the avant-garde movement. Artists such as Gustave rejected the values of mass society and tried to amaze their veiwers with the use of vibrant color and showing classical image s in unusual ways.
#331- Pablo Picasso
Pablo Picasso was the nost revolutionary artist of this age. In his abstract work, Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, he broke away from the single point perspective that had ruled western art since the renaissance.
#332- New Imperialism
In the 1880s, Europeans began to start conquering Africa and Asia without any regress. This period became known as the "new imperialism". This expansion was built on a foundation of technological advances. The weapons were being upgraded and the forms of transportations were becoming more efficient and much faster. They developed the telegraph which allowed them to exchange mesages from India to Europe in a day instead of the two years it had taken at he begining of the century. Some factors for this expansion were search for profits, the desire for raw materials and precious metals, some social imperialists wanted the land so Europe wouldn't become overpopulated.
#333- Berlin Conference
The moral imperative behind imperialism was discussed at the Berlin Conference where they said they would try and control slavery and make Africans live's better. In what became known as the "mad scramble" for colonies, there was little regard for locals. Only two states remained free, Ethiopia and Liberia.The British then took over India and made it a priority. In China, Great Britain took over their economy but never had territorial conquest. This became known as "informal empire". Then the territorial invasion came and China was forced to give up a series of " treaty ports" along the coasst. The French took over Indochina except for Thailand. In 1910, Japan copied the economic system of Germany and Great Britain and conquered Korea. In Belgian Congo, many people were enslaved or died in the pursuit for profits.The Beor War dimmed interest in imperialism for the common people.
#334- Unionists vs. Nationalists (Ireland)
ireland was always nagging at Great Britain and they threatened to explode because Nationalist forces watned to be free of Great Britain. The Unionists wanted to remain a part of Great Britain and it was a huge conflict.
#335- Dreyfus Affair
The third Republic in France was having a hay-day because of the Dreyfus Affair in which a Jewish officer was falsely accused of selling secrets to the Germans. This revealed the anti-semitism in France and also brought about another argument which split France: what the role of the Catholic Church was. By the end of the century the democratic leaders of France were clearly opposed to the Catholic Church claiming they were anti-republican.
#336- Russo-Japanese War
In 1904 the Russo-Japanese War came about and revealed how poor the state really was.
#337- Nicholas II and the Duma
Following the revolution a year later, a Duma was created making Russia a constitutional monarchy. The Tsar at the time, Nicholas II agreed to work in conjuction with the parlaiment.
#338- "Magyarization"
Germany and Austria-Hungary welcomed the war as means of a distraction from their political unrest. The kaiser in Germany was terrified of a Socialists takeover even thought there wasn't really a threat. Austria and Hungary were plagued by the conflict betweent the different races in their states. The process of Magyarization took over and the manditory dominance of the Magyary language and culture created great conflict between the other cultures who made up the majority of the Hungarian population.
#339- Willhelm II
Bismarck was correct to be terrified by a dual frotned war and he tried very hard to prevent that from happening. When Kaiser Willhelm II pushed him out of office, that's exaclty what happened.
#340- Dual Alliance
Years earlier, Bismarck had created the Dual Alliance which united them with Austria-Hungary to keep an eye on Russia. By 1892, German diplomats had provoked the Russians to join in a treaty with France that said if one attacked Germany, they would get aid form the other.
#341- entente cordiale (Triple Entente)
Germanies fear of being surrounded by enmies increased when Great Britain signed the Entente Cirdiale with France resolving some of the colonial issues betweent eh two countries. Later they signed an entente with Russia which is why, int he First Wirld War, France, Great Britain and Russia were called the Entente powers.
#342- Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Teh crisis that led to the war on June 28, 1914, in Sarjevo, the capital of Bosnia. The heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary was assassinated by a Bosnian-Serb who wanted to see Bosnia become part of an enlarged Saerbian state.
#343- Gavrilo Princip
Austria-Hungary took the Bosnian-Herzegovina territories from the weak Ottoman Empire which helped spark what the Austrians truly wanted, war with Serbia. Gavrilo Princip, the Archduke's assasin, operated in full cooperation with the Black Hand, a secret Serbian nationalist group that had ties with the government and military.
#344- Schliefen Plan
The Germans planned to start the war by implementing the Schlieffen plan, which relied on a rapid advance thorugh northern France, hopign to cripplr France in a short time so they could move their army to the east against Russia. Then they planned to sweep through Belgium even though it had said it would remain neutral in the war. This instigated the British to join the fight on the side of the French and Russians. This also made the public in the United States mad that Germany would invade a harmless state.
#345- Invasion of Belgium
As part of the Shliefen Plan, Germany had to invade Belgium, the neutral state. This aroused the British and the United States.
#346- Battle of Marne and trench warfare
In the first week German forces had already threatened paris. After the Germans crosse the Marne River, the Frencha rmy, commanded by Generla Joffre, counter attacked in the First Battle of Marne. The territories that had been gained int his war were pretty much held for the next three years. The prospect of a swift war were diminished by Trench Warfare which were ditches originally but then the defenses fortified. This trench warfare was hell and it became worse in 1915 when poison gas was introduced to both sides. Gas masks were soon distributed and that cut down on the losses but this just showed how inhumane the war was.
#347- Winston Churchill and Gallipoli
The stalemate in the West gave the Germans the oppurtunity to turn to the Russians where they won many great victories because of the under classed Russians. The British sought to aid the Russians by defeating the Turks so they could send supplies to Russia. Winston Churchill devised the plan to invade. This nearly crushed his political carreer because the invasion was a disaster. In April 1915 five Divisions landed on the beach of Gallipoli and they found Turks who were well dug in and ready to fight. This resulted in the British withdrawing by January having suffered withering losses.
#348- General Phillipe Petain
In an attempt to break the stalemate, the German launched a huge attack on the France fortress of Verdun which would cripple the French political situation if they lost it. The French valianlty defencded the fortress under the command of General Phillipe Petain. The Germans hoped to bleed France dry by attacking Verdun but in the end both ended up losing over 600,000 troops.
#349- Lusitania
The Germans had pretty much conquered Russia and focused their efforts on the eastern front, seemingly changeing the tide of the war. This would have given the Germans victory but theUnited States entered the war as a result of the sinking of the passenger ship Lusitania by German U-Boats.
#350- U-boats
The Germans declared the sea around Great Britain a war zone and siad they would sink any ship, neutral or British if it attempted to enter the british Ports. They used u-boats or submarines to do this discretely.
#351- Woodrow Wilson
The Germans had to act quickly if they wanted to defeat the other two entente powers before the Americans could send in fresh reinforcements. They moved quickly and in the first four months had htreatened Paris again. Germany was spent and unable to exploit their victories. When the American forces came over they were forced to retreat and they had to sue for peace to prevent the entente powers from marching on Berlin. The German Kaiser contacted the American president Woodrow Wilson.
#352- Fourteen Points
The Kaiser asked Wilson for a armistice that would be based on his fourteen points- a document that sought to reduce future tensions between nations by maintaining free trade and stopping secret negotiations.
#353- total war
World War I was total war inthat all of the countries involved were totally involved. Even societies lowest members were impacted by this war which made it total war.
#354- Social Impact of WWI
All across the war battered countries the social status had changed. The governments were now more regulating and the women had more rights. In America WWI instigated women fighting for rights and in Britain, women were rewarded at the end of the war for their support with the right to ote.
#355- Treaty of Versailles
In Paris there was a conference to see how to heal the post war world. The Treat of Varsailles, signed on June 28, 1919, in the Hall of Mirrors. Wilson wanted to shape the world after his fourteen points. This peace would allow for self-determination and an international body, the Leage of Nations, that would work to settle disputes between nations.
#356- League of Nations
When the Treaty of Versailles was signed Woodrow Wilson prorposed for a League of Nations that would work to settle disputes between nations. He wanted a peace that would allow for national self-determination.
#357- Georges Clemenceau
The French Premier, Georges Clemenceau thought the opposite of Wilson. France had suffered the most during the war and, in an attempt to please the public, he wanted to make sure Germany never became a threat again.
#358- David Lloyd George
David Lloyd George was the British Prime Minister and he wasn't as harsh as Clemenceau but he also wanted to see Germany punished. In the end, Clemenceau's ideas prevailed.
#359- Reparations
The demand for Germany to pay for the reperations was justified in Article 231. This put all of the blame on Germany and they had to pay the entente powers lot of money. They also had to return Alsace-Lorraine Terrirtories to France and they were only allowed an army of 100,000 men and no air force with a small navy.
#360- Empress Alexandria and Gregory Rasputin
When the last Tsar of Russia, Nicholas II went to command his troops in the first wold war, he left his ignorant wife on the throne, Empress Alexandria. She was pretty much controlled by a mystical Russian monk named Gregory Rasputin. She thought he could controlher hemophiliac son from bleeding. He brought his incompetent friends into positions of power. As the war went bad for the Russians they were accused of having an affair and Alexandria was doingeverything she could to make sure they lost the war because she was of German descent.
#361- March Revolution of 1917
Thhe revolution in March happened in St. Petersburg and happned because of a sever lack of food. The soldiers that were sent out to disperse the riot actually joined it. On March 14, the Tsar was abdicated and the Provisional Government took over.
#362- Provisional government
The Provosional Government was made up of members of the Duma and was temporary until they could write a constitution for the new Russian Republic.
#363- Mensheviks and Bolsheviks
The Soviets, or unions, consisted mainly of Russian socialists. The majority belonged to the Menshevik and Socially Revolutionary wings. The other group was much more extremee and was called the Bolsheviks. The Bolsheviks were followers of Vladimir Lenin.
#364- Vladimir Lenin
Lenin insisted that a small party of professional revolutionaries could seize power on behalf of the working class.
#365- Leon Trotsky
The German's transported lenin back to Russia thinking he would cause political unrest and aid there war effort. They never dreamed he would gain power. By the fall of 1917, Bolsheviks were the most powerful political group. In the city the situation became critical. Lenin saw his chance and had leon Trotsky lead a group of Bolsheviks to take over key areas of the city on November 9.
#366- November Revolution of 1917
The Revolution itself wasn't bloody but for three years after it Lenin's government had to deal with civil war. The Bolsheviks let Communist take over thinking it would spread to Germany and then to the rest of Europe. They let Germany take a lot of territory and signed a treaty to exit the war.
#367- Treaty of Brest Litovsk
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk removed Russia from teh war. The treaty was harsh and involved Germany taking a ton of land. This treaty was never fully implemented because Germany lost the war and the aliies didn't want them getting allof that land.
#368- Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg
After the war Germany became a republic. The first president was Freidrich Ebert and he was immediatley put to the test when socialists like Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxumberg rebelled. He had a tiny army so he had to form the free corps or a voluntary paramilitary group with extreme right-wing leanings. These groups became involved in an atempt to overthrow the Republic but were stopped by a workers strike.
#369- Locarno Agreements
By 1925 Germany was becoming friendly again. They signed the Locarno Agreement with France which said they agreed with the current borders and also removed French troops from the Rhineland.
#370- Communists
After the Bolsheviks took over, a vote was held and the Bolsheviks only got one-fourth of the seats in the house. This assembly was soon dispersed by a Red Guard. Over the next several years, the Communists, worked to solidify their control over the vast Russian state.
#371- Reds vs. Whites
The Communists had to fight White Forces who were snti communists. To negate this, Lenin and Trotsky aunched the Red Terror and by 1920 had scatterd the various whites and confirmed control over Russia.
#372- Third International
In the early days of the Soviet Union, there was still expectations for the belief to spread across Europe. To help this they sponsered the Third International to aid in the revolution. The whole of Europe split between socialists and Communists. In Germany this led to the eventual rise of the Nazis.
#373- New Economic Policy
The economy debate in Russia raged on and Lenin was forced to replace the war communism with New Economic Policy. The heights of industry were under governemnt control but the people had free enterprise. This made the economy successful.
#374- Nikolai Bukharin
After Lenin died in 1914, the issue of who would replace him came about. Trotsky wanted to go back to war communism and focus on spreading communism so it would survive. His opponent Nikolai Bukharin wanted to continue the NEP and focus on strenghtening communism in Russia.
#375- Josph Stalin
Joseph Stalin was surprisingly the one who succeeded Lenin and he joined forces with Bukharin to oust Trotsky from the group and then, two years later, he expelled Bukharin. Stalin ruled with an iron fist and was brutal. In the 1930s, 10 million Russians were arrested. He tortured former opponents into admitting to crimes against the state.
#376- Old Bolsheviks and show trials
Stalin decimated the rank of the Ols Bolsheviks, or the people who had joined the party prior to 1917.
#377- Five Year Plan
Stalin wanted to industrialize Russia so he executed the five year plan.
#378- collectivization and the kulaks
To pay for the Five Year Plan, he forced the peasants to give all agriculture to him and he ordered any kulak, or wealthy peasant, who refused to be killed. This killed many people but by the end of the 1930s, Russia was a huge industrial power and the rest of Europe was falling into a depression.
#379- Great Depression
The Depresssion probably started in 1931 after the war had depleted the countries. The Germans relied on the American banks for loans to aid post war effoets. It looked like all woul prosper but thenthe American Stock Market Crashed in 1929.
#380- Stock market Crash of 1929
The American Stock Market Crash crushed the hopes of germany and America prospering through each other.
#381- Credit-Anstaldt
In May 1931, Vienna's most powerful bank, the Credit-Anstaldt, collapsed and that created a domino affect. Banks throguhout Eastern Europe began to fail. this worsened when the British governemtn made it impossible for pounds to be traded for gold standard.
#382- Gold Standard
When Great Britain came off of the Gold standard system, the available money was diminished. This led to people tightening their supply of money and the governments cut their expendentures.
#383- john Maynard keynes
keynes was a single voice of dissent and argued that the nations needed to "prime the pump", that is to increase expendentures in areas sucha s public works to get the economy moving again.
#384- Franklin Roosevelt
In the United States the people were hit hard so they elected Franklin Roosevelt as the new president and signed into his New Deal.
#385- New Deal
The New Deal was Franklin Roosevelt's plan to brign America out of the Depression.
#386- Fascism
In germany the Republic failed and Fascism took over. The people wanted fascism because their lives were shattered. Fascism wanted to destroy the face of the individual and make a common community. Fascist were similar to the communists but htey sitll wanted social class and believed parlaimentary government was anarchy. They wanted a supreme ruler who reperesented the dreams and desires of the nation.
#387- Benito Moussilini
Moussilini was the founder of fascism in italy. Fascism succeeded because the workers were upset with the current governtment and welcomed fascism. Fascisme grew as the workers it favored began to give them money. By 1921, they had seats in parlaiment. Moussilini demanded that he and a few other party members be place in cabinet positions. To ensure this he had some of his black shirted thugs march on Rome in an attempt to maybe take over. In 1922 he was named Prime Minister but this wasn't good enough. He then set a series of laws to allow him to proceed with his actions. He soon banned all non-fascist political acitivities. He signed a treaty with the Catholic Church and they recognized the Italian State. His economical plan didn't work as well as he would have like.
#388- Paul von Hindenburg.
The Weimar Republic was doomed because of their president Paul von Hondenburg. He was a monarchists and wanted to change the governemtn but didn't know how. He elected Heinrich Bruning when the Socialist Chancellor stepped down. bruning proposed an economic system that would have done nohting gor Germany.
#389- Reichstag
THe Communists and Nazis were the big seats in the Reichstag. The Naxis went form holding 12 seats to holding 102 after Bruning held a new election for the seats in parlaiment.
#390- Adolf Hitler
In January 1933 hindenburg had to make Hitler the Chancellor. This gave him to much power. Hitler hated Jews ever since he studied and lived in Vienna.
#391- National Socialists German Workers Party
In 1919 Hitler joined the Nazis, on of the small extremists groups in the Wiemar republic.
#392- Beer Hall putsch
By 1923 he thought they were strong enough to gain power so he launched the Beer Hall putsch in Munich. He wanted to instigate a nation-wide revolt but failed and was put on trial.
#393- Mein Kampf
In prison, Hitler wrote Mein Kampf which outlined his extremists views and his desire to overturn the Versailles Treaty.
#394- Enabling Act
When the parliamentary building was set on fire, the Nazis blamed the Communists. Hitler convince parliament to vote him emergency powers to end the so called plot by the communists to take over Germany. Hitler then declared the Nazis as the supreme political group and in the Enabling act gave himself the powers of the president and the chancellor. He then made Nazism the only political group.
#395- Joseph Goebbels and Propoganda
the Nazis created a ministry of Propoganda to monitor their state and made Joseph Goebbels the Minister.
#396- Hitler Youth
the Nazis did their best to recognize things like hiking groups and choral socities. Huge organizations like Hitler Youth were formed to indoctrine the young. Any who refused the new state of things were put down by the secret police.
#397- Labour Party (Britain)
Politics in Great Britain remained stable but the liberals were stamped out of the second largest political group by the Labour Party. They more effectivley voiced the opinions of the working mind. this change was welcome after the war because Britain was the same as it had been before the war.
#398- Popular Front (France)
The right wing of France organized a "Poular Front" to stop the ideas of Fascism in Frane. This proved successful when, in 1936, the Communists, Socialists, and Radicalists won the majority of the seats in Parliament.
#399- Leon Blum
Blum was the leader of the Socialist party and was elected prime Minister. France had to grapple with a situation that threatened the Popular Front, the Spanish Civil War.
#400- Spanish Civil War
The Republic in Spain had a number of problems that they had trouble resolving. The government had promised a land reform and they didn't produce. In February 1936, a Popular Front won an electoral vote to aid them in a struggle against Spanish Fascists. This governemtn attempted to solve Spain's Problems. They still couldn't solve the problems soon enough and were overturned.
#401- General Francisco Franco
In the summer of 1936, a groups of army officers led by General Francisco Franco took control of large parts of Spain. Their belief that the Republic would crumble prived false and then the Republican state was backed by Nationalist Germans and Italian.
#402- Pablo Picasso
In an attempt to instill fear into supporters of the republicans, italy and Germany bombed the peaceful city of Guernica. To show his disgust at this, Pablo Picasso painted his masterpiece, Guernica. This painting willed the Spainairds.
#403- Rearmement and Remilitarization of the Rhineland
In 1935, Hitler began to openly rearm Germany which was in violation of the Versailles treaty. Hitler didn't listen to protests from France and Britain and remilitaarized the Rhineland. The French pretended to be a threat to try and frighten Hitler but he saw this as a sign of their weakness and coninued with his plans.
#404- Anschluss
When Hitler began to invade Austria, the Anschuluss was welcomed and the people began to attack their Jewish neighbors.
#405- Sudeten Germans (Sudentland)
When Hitler invaded Chechoslavakia, he had support from the Sudenten Germans that lived in the west part of the Country.
#406- Rome-Berlin Axis
Great Britain felt threatened by many things Germany did, one of them being the Rome-Berlin Axis.
#407- Appeasement and the Munich Agreement
When Neville Chamberlain was elected Prime Minister of Great Britain, he recognized that he couldn't fight Germany and Italy so he searched for an understanding with Mousillini or Hitler.
#408- Neville Chamberlain
In September, Chamberlain flew to Munich to discuss the future of Chechoslavakia . The foru powers decided in the Munich Agreement that Germany would get the territory of Sudentenland.
#409- Soviet-German non aggression pact
When Hitler threatened Poland, Chamberlain realized his intentions and jined forces with France to attack if Poland was threatened. The Soviets wanted to join in the pact but France and Great Britain didn't trust them so they were very cautious. On August 22, 1939-to the shock of the rest of the world- Germany and the soviets signed a non agression pact.
#410- Blitzkreig
The war began whe Hitler invaded the Poles and used the Blitzkrieg style of fighting. This was the use of mobile tanks and things, with the support of air attacks, to have swift defeats.
#411- Phony War
Over the winter of 1939-1940, there was no fighting and this was called the phony war. This was shattered when Hitler invade Denmark and Norway for coal and iron supplies. In May the Germans followed up these attacks with the invasion of Belgium, the Netherlands, and thir ultimate goal, France. The French army was considered to be the finest in the world bu it was defeated in just six short weeks.
#412- Maginot Line and Dunkirk
The French thought the fighting would be like the First World War and they built the Magino Line which was a defense considered to be impregnable. The Germans simply bypassed the defenses and circled the French. Seeing this happen, the Britains retreated from the beaches at Dunkirk.
#413- Vichy France
The Third Republic was removed, being blamed for the defeat and Petain mad a government called Vichy.
#414- Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle called for a removal of the French armies in the colonies so they could come back and regain France's honor.
#415- Battle of Britain
When Winston Churchill became the Prime Minister, he encouraged the British to stay in the war no matter what. At the Battle of Britain hitler was defeated by the British forcers who were better equipped. He soon forgot this invasionand turned to the Soviet Union.
#416- Nuremburg Laws
When the nazis took over, they issued the Nuremburg Laws which stripped Jews of their rights and forced them to wear a yellow star of David on all of their clothing.
#417- Kristallnacht
On November 9, 1938, the Nazis launched Kristallnacht, the "night of broken galss" so named because of all of the Jewish shops and homes being wrecked.
#418- "Final Solution"
Hitler and other Gemrna leaders organized the final solution which said that all jews were to be moved to extemination camps.
#419- Aushwitz
The most famous extermination camp was Auschwitz. Upon arrival there, the people would be sorted by SS doctors. Some would go to work camps and some to gas chambers. The camps also included Gypsies, homosexuals, Jehova's Witness, Russian prisoners of war, communists, and other's nazis considered to be "undesirables". 13 million people were slaughtered in these camps.
#420- Holocaust
The Holocaust is the term reffering to the slaughter of all of the "undesirables" in the Nazis concentration camps.
#421- Erwin Rommel and El Alamein
When the Italians invade Africa they had to call on German aid. The German commander was Erwin Rommel or the "Desert Fox". He had almost made it to Alexandria when, at the Battle of El Alamein, British forces drove them back.
#422- D-Day
Following a meeting between Stalin, Churchill, and Roosevelt, they decided to launch their invasion from Great Britain. On June 6, 1944, the Allies launched their D-Day invasion. This marked the begining of the end of nazi germany.
#423- Nuremburg Trial
The Nuremburg Trials saw that the Nazis leaders be put tp death. Since Hitler and Goebbels had commited suicide, Hermann Goring was the next inline. He was entenced to death, thus endin the Nazis regime.