• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/138

Click to flip

138 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The physically addictive depressant drugs include:
alcohol, tranquilizers, and barbiturates.
Mike suffers from narcolepsy. Sometimes when he is very excited or experiencing intense emotions he suddenly loses voluntary muscle strength and control and collapses, a phenomenon called:
cataplexy.
Mandy is 8 months old, her mother Jennie is 40 years old, and her grandmother Matilda is 70 years old. During a typical 24-hour period, who experiences the highest proportion of REM to NREM sleep?
Mandy
Heroin, cocaine, amphetamines, alcohol, and nicotine are all addictive drugs that increase levels of which of the following neurotransmitters in the brain?
dopamine
Sleep restriction studies have shown that:
immune system functioning, concentration, vigilance, reaction time, memory skills, and ability to gauge risk were all diminished.
Along with carrying 18 hours of college classes, Tolek is working full-time at his uncle's hardware store. When Tolek complained to a friend about how tired he was all the time, his friend offered to sell him some methamphetamines. “They give you more energy,” his friend explained. Tolek has been using the methamphetamines almost daily for the last two weeks. If Tolek continues his chronic use of methamphetamines, he will experience:
permanent destruction of brain tissue.
Mac has been driving for almost thirty hours straight because he was promised a $1,000 bonus if he delivers his truckload of refrigerated roses by 5:00 the next morning. As Mac drives through the night and gets progressively more tired, he is likely to experience:
very brief episodes of sleep called microsleeps.
Caffeine:
is the most widely used psychoactive drug in the world
What is “synthesized” in the activation–synthesis model of dreaming?
various memories and sensations that are internally generated by the brain
Which of the following is a derivative of opium?
codeine
During his therapy session, Brent told his psychotherapist that he had a recurring dream in which he was fighting the pilot on an airplane and struggling to take over the controls. In terms of Freud's psychoanalytic view of dreams, the airplane, the pilot, and fighting would all be considered to be the dream's:
manifest content
This image depicts the sleep cycles over the course of a typical night. In which stage are hypnagogic hallucinations most likely to occur? 
A.
According to _____, dreaming is the subjective awareness of the brain's internally generated signals during sleep.
the activation–synthesis model
According to the Critical Thinking box, psychologists Irving Kirsch and Wayne Braffman propose that many highly suggestible participants are just as responsive to suggestions when they have not been hypnotized as when they have been hypnotized. They note that hypnosis does not reflect a distinct brain state but rather individual differences in the degree to which a person is able to experience an imaginary state of affairs as if it were real. Their explanation of hypnosis is called:
the imaginative–suggestibility view.
Although _____ has been shown to be a pseudoscience, it helped introduce the idea that functions were _____ in the brain.
phrenology; localized
Petro is unable to articulate ideas or understand spoken or written language because of brain damage. Petro suffers from:
aphasia
Psychologist Roger Sperry is best known for:
his studies of split-brain patients.
Who is this?
German psychiatrist and neurologist Carl Wernicke who identified a brain area on the left temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex that, when damaged, produces meaningless or nonsensical speech and difficulties in verbal or written comprehension.
The development of new neurons in the brain is called:
Neurogenesis
The _____ functions as the main link between the nervous system and the endocrine system.
hypothalamus
According to the Critical Thinking box “'His' and 'Her' Brains?,” which of the following is FALSE?
Men's brains tend to be much smaller than women's brains.
Processing somatosensory information is to _____ lobe as seeing is to _____ lobe.
parietal; occipital
Most left-handed people:
are left-hemisphere dominant for language, like most right-handed people.
During the action potential:
sodium ions rush into the interior of the axon.
Epinephrine and norepinephrine are manufactured by the _____ in the _____.
adrenal glands; endocrine system
Which of the following is part of the limbic system and is involved in emotional responses and memories with a strong emotional component?
the amygdala
Modern neuroscience research has shown that learning a new motor skill, such as juggling, and living in an enriched environment:
can affect brain structures, such as the number and shape of neuronal dendrites and axon terminals, and the number of glial cells.
When neurotransmitters communicate an inhibitory message to the postsynaptic neuron:
the postsynaptic neuron is less likely to activate
Reduced brain levels of the neurotransmitter called _____ are involved in the progressive memory loss that characterizes Alzheimer's disease.
acetylcholine
Which letter points to the brain structure that controls vital life functions, such as breathing, heartbeat, and digestion?
D. Medulla
Reuptake occurs:
when neurotransmitter molecules are reabsorbed by the presynaptic neuron.
Janeen and Marty were strolling down a wooded path in a city park when a man holding a knife suddenly jumped out of the shrubbery. Rather than fight, Janeen and Marty decided to flee and took off running in the opposite direction. This quick reaction reflects the fight-or-flight response, which is triggered by the _____ nervous system, which stimulates the_____ to produce _____.
sympathetic; adrenal medulla; epinephrine and norepinephrine
The venom of the black widow spider bite causes _____ to be released continuously by motor neurons, causing severe muscle spasms.
acetylcholine
Karen is right-handed. A biopsychologist administers a PET scan of Karen's brain while Karen listens to one of her favorite pieces of music, Beethoven's Third Symphony. Which area of Karen's brain is likely to show the greatest activity on the PET scan?
the right hemisphere
The terms autonomic and somatic refer to the two main subdivisions of the:
peripheral nervous system.
In general, neural messages are received by the _____ and transmitted by the _____.
dendrites; axons
Structural plasticity:
refers to a phenomenon in which brain structures change in response to learning, active practice, or environmental influences.
Tom is a split-brain patient seated in front of a screen. As he focuses on the middle of the screen, the image of an apple is briefly flashed on the LEFT side of the screen. Tom will:
verbally deny that any image appeared on the screen.
biological psychology (biopsychology or psychobiology)
Specialized branch of psychology that stdies the relationship between behavior and bodily proesses and systems
neuroscience
The study of the nervous system, especially the brain.
neuron
Highly specialized cell that communicates inormation in electrical and chemical form; a nerve cell
sensory neuron
Type of neuron that conveys informations
motor neuron
Type of neuron that signals muscles to relax or contract.
interneuron
Type of neuron that communicates information from one neuron or the next.
glial (GLEE-ull) cells
Support cells that assist neurons by providing structural support, nutrition and removal of cell wastes; manufacture myelin.
cell body (also called the Soma)
Processes nutrients and provides energy for the neuron to function' contains the cell's nucleus
dendrites
(from a Greek word meaning tree) Multiple short fibers that extend from the neuron's cell body and receive information from others neurons or from sensory receptor cells
axon
The long, fluid-filled tube that carries a neuron's messages to other body areas.
myelin (MY-eh-lin) sheath
A white, fatty covering wrapped around the axons of some neurons that increases their communication speed.
action potential
A brief electrical impulse by which information is transmitted along the axon of a neuron.
stimulus threshold
The minimum level of stimulation required to activate a particular neuron.
resting potential
State in which neuron is praped to activate and communicate its meddage if it receives sufficient stimulus.
all-or-none-law
The principle that either a neuron is sufficiently stimulated and an action potential occurs or a neuron is not sufficiently stimulated and an action potential does not occur.
synapse (SIN-aps)
The point of communication between two neurons.
synaptic gap (sin-AP-tick)
The tiny space between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrite of an adjoining neuron.
axon terminals
Branches at the end of the axon that contain tiny pouches, or sacs, called synaptic vesicles.
synaptic vessicles (sin-AP-tick VESS-ick-ulls)
Tiny pouches or sacs in the axon terminals that contain chemicals called neurotransmitters.
neurotransmitters
Chemical messengers manufactured by a neuron.
synaptic transmission (sin-AP-tick)
The process through which neurotransmitters are released by one neuron, cross, the sunaptic gap, and affect adjoining neurons.
reuptake
The process by which neurotransmitter molecules detach from a postsynaptic neuron and are reabsorbed by a presynaptic neuron so they can be recycled and used again.
acetylcholine (uh-set-ull-KO-leen)
Neurotransmitter that causes muscle contractions and is involved in learning and memory.
dopamine (DOPE-uh-meen)
Neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of bodily movement, thought processes, and rewarding sensations.
serotonin (ser-ah-TONE-in)
Neurotransmitter involved in sensory perceptions, sleep, and emotions.
norepinephrine (nor-epin-EF-rin)
Neurotransmitter involved in learning, memory, and regulation of sleep; also a hormone manufactured by adrenal glands.
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
Neurotransmitter that usually communicates and inhibitory message.
endorphins (en-DORF-ins)
Neurotransmitters that regulate pain perceptions.
nerves
Bundles of neuron axons that carry information in the peripheral nervous system
central nervous systom (CNS)
Division of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord.
spinal reflexes
Simple, automatic behaviors that are processed in the spinal cord.
peripheral nrvous system (per-IF-er-ull)
Divisions of the nervous system that includes all the nerves lying outside the central nervous system.
somatic nervous system
Subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that communicates sensory information to the central nervous system and carries motor messages from the central nervous system to the muscles.
autonomic nervous system (aw-toe-NOM-ick)
Subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that regulates involuntary functions.
sympathetic nervous system
Branch of the autonomic nervous system that produces rapid physical arousal in response to perceived emergencies of threats.
parasympathetic nervous system
Branch of the autonomic nervous system that maintains normal bodily functions and conserves the body's physical resources.
endocrine system (EN-doe-krin)
System of glands located throughout the body that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
hormones
Chemical messengers secreted into the bloodstream primarily by endocrin glads.
pituitary gland (pih-TOO-ih-tare-ee)
Endocrine gland attached to the base of the brain that secretes hormones that affect the funtion of other glands as well as hormones that act directly on physical processes.
adrenal glands
Pair of endocrine glands that are involved in the human stress response
adrenal cortex
The outer portion of the adrenal glands.
adrenal medulla
The inner portion of the adrenal glands; secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine.
gonads
The endocrine glands that secrete hormones that regulate sexual characteristics and reproductive processes; ovaries in females and testes in males.
functional plasticity
The brain's ability to shift functions from damaged to undamaged brain areas.
This image depicts key components involved in regulating your internal biological clock. Which structure manufactures melatonin? 
A. Pineal Gland
The three basic types of neurons are:
sensory neurons, motor neurons, and interneurons.
This drawing shows the typical structures found on a neuron. Pick the alternative that correctly labels the structures in the drawing.
1 = dendrites, 2 = cell body, 3 = axon, 4 = myelin sheath
What occurs during the refractory period?
The neuron reestablishes the negative-inside/positive-outside condition.
The all-or-none law refers to the fact that:
either the neuron is sufficiently stimulated and an action potential occurs or it is not sufficiently stimulated and the action potential does not occur.
The graph shows the changing electrical charge of a neuron when it activates. Pick the alternative that correctly labels the different phases depicted in the graph. 
1 = resting potential, 2 = ions cross membrane, 3 = action potential, 4 = refractory period
Rachel had injections of Botox in an attempt to eliminate facial wrinkles. Botox contains minute amounts of botulin, an extremely lethal substance produced by bacteria, and works by blocking the release of a specific neurotransmitter from motor neurons, causing muscle paralysis. This neurotransmitter, found in all motor neurons, is called:
acetylcholine
Like other people afflicted with _____, actor Michael J. Fox takes a medication that increases _____ levels to help control symptoms of the disease.
Parkinson's disease; dopamine
Which of the following is NOT one of the ways discussed in the text that drugs can interfere with synaptic transmission?
by bonding with the neurotransmitter and changing its molecular weight and shape
Professor Romero discovered that the overhead projector in her classroom had a short in the wiring system. When she touched the metal edge of the projector, she got an electric shock and instantly jerked her hand back. This instantaneous reaction is an example of:
a spinal reflex.
As you are walking on a beach, you pick up an odd-looking seashell that has a very rough texture. As you rub your fingers over the shell, the sensory messages are communicated via the _____ nervous system to the central nervous system.
somatic
Paul was awakened by a thumping noise in the middle of the night. Frightened, he jumped out of bed to investigate. Hearing a muffled meow, Paul realized that his cat was shut in the closet and was pushing against the door. Breathing a sigh of relief, Paul let the cat out of the closet and went back to bed. Which subdivision of the nervous system helped calm down and restore Paul's body functioning back to normal?
parasympathetic
The endocrine system involves communication by chemical messengers called _____, which circulate through the _____.
hormones; bloodstream
The _____ is involved in regulating sleep–wake cycles, and the _____ is involved in regulating blood sugar levels and hunger.
pineal gland; pancreas
The physical arousal that accompanies the fight-or-flight response involves the activation of which of the following endocrine glands?
the adrenal medulla
Neuroplasticity, or simply plasticity, refers to the brain's ability to:
change function and structure.
A Focus on Neuroscience section in the text described a research study involving participants who learned how to juggle. What was the main conclusion of the research?
that learning and practicing a new skill had distinct physical effects on specific brain structures
Which of the following represents the largest region of the brain?
the forebrain.
The primary communication link between the left and right cerebral hemispheres is called:
the corpus callosum.
Your nephew's eyes suddenly light up and he reaches out, executes a double-jump of your checker pieces, then smiles at you triumphantly. The brain signals for these voluntary actions originated in the _____ of your nephew's brain.
primary motor cortex.
This image depicts the left hemisphere of the cerebral cortex. Which area processes information about body sensations and contains the somatosensory cortex? 
B.
Which of the following body areas has (have) the greatest degree of representation on the primary motor cortex and the somatosensory cortex?
the face.
You've been studying biology in the library for the last couple of hours when you realize that you're getting really hungry and thirsty. Which brain structure played a key role in triggering feelings of hunger and thirst?
the hypothalamus.
Researchers have found that the female hippocampus tends to be larger than the male hippocampus. Based on evidence presented in the Critical Thinking box in the text, “'His' and 'Her' Brains?” you would be justified in asserting which of the following?
When tested on memory tasks there are no differences between males and females.
The idea that specific psychological or cognitive functions are processed primarily on one side of the brain is called:
lateralization of function.
Following her stroke, Fernando's grandmother could understand what she read or what was being said to her. However, she had great difficulty speaking. Based on these observations, Fernando suspected that his grandmother's stroke had produced damage in:
Broca's area.
Why was the split-brain operation first performed?
to help control recurring epileptic seizures
Tracy is a split-brain patient seated in front of a screen. As she focuses on the middle of the screen, the image of a fork is briefly flashed on the RIGHT side of the screen. Tracy will:
be able to verbally name the object.
The chapter Prologue described the story of a young university professor named Asha who suffered a stroke. Even though some of Asha's language abilities were disrupted by the stroke, she was still able to appreciate music because her _____ was not damaged.
right hemisphere
According to Science Versus Pseudoscience in the text, the statement that most people only use about 10% of their brain:
is just a myth
Compared with young rats that have been raised in an “impoverished” environment, young rats that have been raised in an “enriched” environment have:
more dendritic branches and more synaptic connections in the cerebral cortex.
How is melatonin involved in jet lag?
Switching time zones causes a person's melatonin circadian rhythm to be out of synch with environmental time cues
Sleeping by herself, LaShawn was gently drifting off to sleep when she was jolted awake by the vivid sensation that someone had just touched her arm. After sitting up and reassuring herself that no one was in the room, she lay back down and tried to put the experience out of her mind. LaShawn had experienced _____, which is most likely to occur _____.
a hypnagogic hallucination; as a person is first going to sleep
You've been lying awake next to your bed partner for about five minutes. As you hear the other person's breathing become rhythmical, you notice occasional slight twitches in your partner's hand and leg. Most likely, your bed partner is in:
stage 2 NREM.
As you are being monitored by sleep researchers, almost all of your brain activity comprises delta brain waves. This is a clear sign that you are in:
stage 4 NREM.
Danita goes to bed at 10 P.M. and quickly falls asleep. She sleeps soundly until 6 A.M. the next morning. Between 2 A.M. and 6 A.M. Danita will most likely experience:
long episodes of REM sleep
According to the information discussed in the In Focus box titled “What You Really Want to Know About Sleep,” which of the following statements is TRUE?
A naturally occurring compound called adenosine seems to be involved in producing sleepiness.
According to Focus on Neuroscience: The Sleep-Deprived Emotional Brain, which of the following is TRUE?
People often react with greater emotionality when they're not getting adequate sleep.
A couple of times during the night, you awaken slightly. Each time you awaken, you're aware of vague mental images that reflect a conversation you and your boss had about resolving a problem at work. These bland, thoughtlike ruminations about real events are best described as:
sleep thinking.
Dreams can occasionally occur during 
NREM sleep
During REM sleep, a dreamer tends to uncritically accept the seemingly illogical and occasionally bizarre details of his or her dreams. In terms of brain functioning, what seems to account for this?
The frontal lobes are essentially shut down during REM sleep.
Sheena was describing a dream she had about her psychology class to a friend. “During the dream, I realized it was dream, and I didn't like the way the dream was going so I went back to the beginning of the dream and started it over,” she explained to her astonished friend. What had Sheena experienced?
a lucid dream
Elaine is sitting in Sigmund Freud's office and tells him that she remembers a dream in which a car was parked in front of her house and a man with a baseball bat kept getting in and out of the car. After some discussion, Freud suggests to Elaine that the baseball bat probably symbolized the man's penis and the action of repeatedly entering the car probably symbolized sexual intercourse. The symbolic meaning of the dream that Freud suggested is called the _____ content.
latent
What does this photo show?
Psychologist Ernest Hilgard is demonstrating how hypnosis can reduce the perception of painful stimuli.
Which of the following statements best expresses Sigmund Freud's view of dreaming?
Dream imagery is a symbolic expression of repressed urges, wishes, and desires.
In the activation–synthesis model of dreaming, what is activated?
circuits at the base of the brain that arouse more sophisticated brain areas, such as visual and auditory centers
According to the survey conducted by the National Sleep Foundation, approximately _____ of American stay-at-home mothers experience symptoms of insomnia a few nights each week.
74 percent
Mrs. Wilkinson notices that her middle-aged husband stops breathing in his sleep, awakens slightly to gulp in air, then goes back to sleep. This happens several times a night. Mr. Wilkinson is displaying symptoms of which of the following sleep disorders?
obstructive sleep apnea
Narcolepsy:
"is a dyssomnia that occurs in every culture and ethnic group, and it affects males and females equally.
People with narcolepsy tend to have extremely low levels of _____; a special class of neurotransmitters that are produced exclusively by neurons in the hypothalamus.
hypocretins
Which of the following statements best summarizes how hypnosis affects memory?
Hypnosis is much more effective at enhancing a person's confidence in memories than it is at improving the accuracy of the memories.
According to the Critical Thinking box on explanations of hypnosis, what evidence seems to undermine the notion that hypnosis involves dissociation and is a special state of consciousness?
Highly motivated people often perform the same tasks or abilities just as well as hypnotized subjects.
In an interesting approach to studying meditation, psychologists and neuroscientists have been conducting ongoing studies with:
Tibetan Buddhist monk
Because Paul suffers from frequent headaches, he began taking a powerful pain reliever every day. Lately he has noticed that when he avoids taking the pain reliever for a few days, his headaches are more intense and more frequent than they had been before he began taking the new medication. Paul is probably experiencing:
the drug rebound effect.
Which of the following statements about alcohol is FALSE?
Women metabolize alcohol more quickly than men
Alcohol initially produces feelings of euphoria, talkativeness, and outgoing behavior because it:
depresses activity in the brain regions involved with self-control and judgment, lowering inhibitions.