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59 Cards in this Set

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What is PH
PH is a measure of the acidity of a solution, in terms of activity of hydrogen ions (H+). For dilute solutions, however, it is convenient to substitute the activity of the hydrogen ions with the molarity (mol/L) of the hydrogen ions (however, this is not necessarily accurate at higher concentrations [1] [2]).

In aqueous systems, the hydrogen ion activity is dictated by the dissociation constant of water (Kw = 1.011 × 10−14 M2 at 25 °C) and interactions with other ions in solution. Due to this dissociation constant, a neutral solution (hydrogen ion activity equals hydroxide ion activity) has a pH of approximately 7. Aqueous solutions with pH values lower than 7 are considered acidic, while pH values higher than 7 are considered basic.
What is Acid
An acid (often represented by the generic formula HA) is traditionally considered any chemical compound that when dissolved in water, gives a solution with a pH of less than 7. That approximates the modern definition of Brønsted and Lowry, who defined an acid as a compound which donates a hydrogen ion (H+) to another compound (called a base). Common examples include acetic acid (in vinegar) and sulfuric acid (used in car batteries). Acids generally taste sour; however, tasting acids, particularly concentrated acids, can be dangerous and is not recommended.
In chemistry, an alkali (from Arabic: al-qaly القالي) is a specific type of base, 'because an alkali is a base which is soluble in water' formed as a carbonate, hydroxide or other basic (pH greater than 7) ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkali earth metal element. The word alkali or the adjective alkaline are frequently used to refer to all bases, since most common bases are alkalis, although strictly speaking this is inaccurate. An Alkali is a base which will dissolve water without causing a Precipitate, however the solution could become saturated to give a false reading, but if a base in a small amount will dissolve in water without forming a precipitate, it is an Alkali. Therefore all alkalis are bases, but not all bases are alkali, as not all bases dissolve into water.
Soil texture is a soil property used to describe the relative proportion of different grain sizes of mineral particles in a soil. Particles are grouped according to their size into what are called soil separates (clay, silt, and sand). The soil texture class (eg. sand, clay loam, etc) corresponds to a particular range of separate fractions, and is diagramatically represented by the soil texture triangle. Coarse textured soils contain a large proportion of sand, medium textures are dominated by silt, and fine textures by clay.

Soil separate

A soil separate is a specific range of particle sizes. The larger sizes are described as coarse, intermediate as medium, and the smaller as fine. (Different methods of soil texture classification define the separates slightly differently.)
Name of soil separate Diameter limits (mm) (USDA classification)
Clay less than 0.002
Silt 0.002 - 0.05
Very fine sand 0.05 - 0.10
Fine sand 0.10 - 0.25
Medium sand 0.25 - 0.50
Coarse sand 0.50 - 1.00
Very coarse sand 1.00 - 2.00

Major texture classes

There are 12 major texture classes:

* Sand
* Silt
* Clay
* Loam
* Loamy sand
* Sandy loam
* Sandy clay loam
* Sandy clay
* Silt loam
* Clay loam
* Silty clay loam
* Silty clay
Sand is an example of a class of materials called granular matter. Sand is a naturally occurring, finely divided rock, comprising particles or granules ranging in size from 0.0625 (or 1⁄16) to 2 millimeters. An individual particle in this range size is termed a sand grain. The next smaller size class in geology is silt: particles below 0.0625 mm down to 0.004 mm in size. The next larger size class above sand is gravel, with particles ranging from 2 mm up to 64 mm (see grain size for standards in use). Sand feels gritty when rubbed between the fingers (silt feels like flour).
On the Wentworth scale, silt particles fall between 1⁄256 and 1⁄16 mm (3.9 to 62.5 μm), larger than clay but smaller than a sand. In actuality, silt is chemically distinct from clay, and unlike clay, grains of silt are roughly the same size in all dimensions, and their size ranges overlap. According to the USDA Soil Texture Classification system, the sand-silt distinction is made at the 0.05 mm particle size.[1] The USDA system is also used by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). In the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) and the AASHTO Soil Classification system, the sand-silt distinction is made at the 0.075 mm particle size (i.e. material passing the #200 sieve). Silts and clays are distinguished by their plasticity.
Clay is a term used to describe a group of hydrous aluminium phyllosilicate (phyllosilicates being a subgroup of silicate minerals) minerals (see clay minerals), that are typically less than 2 μm (micrometres) in diameter. Clay consists of a variety of phyllosilicate minerals rich in silicon and aluminium oxides and hydroxides which include variable amounts of structural water. Clays are generally formed by the chemical weathering of silicate-bearing rocks by carbonic acid but some are formed by hydrothermal activity. Clays are distinguished from other small particles present in soils such as silt by their small size, flake or layered shape, affinity for water and high plasticity index.

Depending upon academic source, there are three or four main groups of clays: kaolinite, montmorillonite-smectite, illite, and chlorite (the latter group is not always considered a part of the clays and is sometimes classified as a separate group within the phyllosilicates). There are about thirty different types of 'pure' clays in these categories but most 'natural' clays are mixtures of these different types, along with other weathered minerals.

Montmorillonite, with a chemical formula of (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2Si4O10(OH)2·nH2O, is typically formed as a weathering product of low silica rocks. Montmorillonite is a member of the smectite group and a major component of bentonite.

Varve (or varved clay) is clay with visible annual layers, formed by seasonal differences in erosion and organic content. This type of deposit is common in former glacial lakes from the ice age.

Quick clay is a unique type of marine clay, indigenous to the glaciated terrains of Norway, Canada, and Sweden. It is a highly sensitive clay, prone to liquefaction which has been involved in several deadly landslides.
Loam is soil composed of a relatively even mixture of three mineral particle size groups: sand, silt, and clay. Loams are gritty, plastic when moist, and retain water easily. Yet they drain well where the topography allows. They generally contain more nutrients than sandy soils.

In addition to the term loam, different names are given to soils with slightly different proportions of sand, silt, and clay: sandy loam, silty loam, clay loam, sandy clay loam, silty clay loam.

A "loamy" soil feels mellow and is easy to work over a wide range of moisture conditions. A soil dominated by one or two of the three particle size groups can behave like loam if it has a strong granular structure (promoted by a high content of organic matter). However, a soil that meets the textural definition of loam can become unlike loamy earth if it is compacted, depleted of organic matter, or has dispersive clay in its fine-earth fraction.

Loam in house construction
The salt content of most natural lakes, rivers, and streams is so small that these waters are termed fresh or even sweet water. The actual amount of salt in fresh water is, by definition, less than 0.05%. Otherwise, the water is regarded as brackish, or defined as saline if it contains 3 to 5% salt by volume. At well over 5% it is considered brine. The ocean is naturally saline at approximately 3.5% salt (see sea water). Some inland salt lakes or seas are even saltier. The Dead Sea, for example, has a surface water salt content of around 15%.

The technical term for saltiness in the ocean is halinity, from the fact that halides—chloride specifically—are the most abundant anion in the mix of dissolved elements. In oceanography, it has been traditional to express halinity not as percent, but as parts per thousand (ppt or ‰), which is approximately grams of salt per liter of solution. Prior to 1978, salinity or halinity was expressed as ‰ usually based on the electrical conductivity ratio of the sample to "Copenhagen water", an artificial sea water manufactured to serve as a world "standard". In 1978, oceanographers redefined salinity in Practical Salinity Units (psu): the conductivity ratio of a sea water sample to a standard KCl solution. Ratios have no units, so it is not the case that 35 psu exactly equals 35 grams of salt per litre of solution.

These seemingly esoteric approaches to measuring and reporting concentrations may appear to obscure their practical use; but it must be remembered that salinity is the sum weight of many different elements within a given volume of water. It has always been the case that to get a precise salinity as a concentration and convert this to an amount of substance (sodium chloride, for instance) required knowing much more about the sample and the measurement than just the weight of the solids upon evaporation (one method of determining "salinity"). For example, volume is influenced by water temperature; and the composition of the salts is not a constant (although generally very much the same throughout the world ocean). Saline waters from inland seas can have a composition that differs from that of the ocean. For the latter reason, these waters are termed saline as differentiated from ocean waters, where the term haline applies (although is not universally used).

Systems of classification of water bodies based upon salinity
>300‰ --------------------
60 - 80‰ --------------------
40‰ --------------------
30‰ --------------------
18‰ --------------------
5‰ --------------------
0.5‰ --------------------

Marine waters are those of the ocean, another term for which is euhaline seas. The salinity range for euhaline seas is 30 to 35 ‰. Brackish seas or waters have salinity in the range of 0.5 to 29‰ and metahaline seas from 36 to 40‰. These waters are all regarded as thalassic because their salinity is derived from the ocean and defined as homoiohaline if salinity does not vary much over time (essentially invariant). The table on the right, modified from Por (1972), follows the "Venice system" (1959).

In contrast to homoiohaline environments are certain poikilohaline environments (which may also be thallassic) in which the salinity variation is biologically significant (Dahl, 1956). Poikilohaline waters may range anywhere from 0.5‰ to greater than 300‰. The important characteristic is that these waters tend to vary in salinity over some biologically meaningful range seasonally or on some other roughly comparable time scale. Put simply, these are bodies of water with quite variable salinity.

Highly saline water, from which salts crystallize (or are about to), is referred to as brine.

Environmental considerations

Salinity is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in a body of water. As well, salinity influences the kinds of plants that will grow either in a water body, or on land fed by a water (or by a groundwater). A plant adapted to saline conditions is called a halophyte. Organisms (mostly bacteria) that can live in very salty conditions are classified as extremophiles, halophiles specifically. An organism that can withstand a wide range of salinities is euryhaline.

Salt is difficult to remove from water, and salt content is an important factor in water use (such as potability).
Photosynthesis (photo=light, synthesis=putting together), generally, is the synthesis of sugar from light, carbon dioxide and water, with oxygen as a by-product. It is arguably the most important biochemical pathway known; nearly all life depends on it. It is an extremely complex process, comprised of many coordinated biochemical reactions. It occurs in higher plants, algae, some bacteria, and some protists, organisms collectively referred to as photoautotrophs. This article summarizes some of the major aspects of the process and provides links to more detailed articles explaining the numerous technical details, and implications, involved.
Transpiration is the evaporation of water from aerial parts of plants, especially leaves but also stems, flowers and fruits. Transpiration is a side effect of the plant needing to open its stomata in order to obtain carbon dioxide gas from the air for photosynthesis. Transpiration also cools plants and enables mass flow of mineral nutrients from roots to shoots. Mass flow is caused by the decrease in hydrostatic (water) pressure in the upper parts of the plants due to the diffusion of water out of stomata into the atmosphere. Water is absorbed at the roots by osmosis, and any dissolved mineral nutrients travel with it through the xylem.

The rate of transpiration is directly related to whether the stomata are open or closed. The amount of water lost by a plant depends on its size, along with the surrounding light intensity, temperature, humidity, wind speed, and soil water supply. The reason that an increase in temperature will cause an increase in transpiration rate is because an increase in temperature will cause more water to evaporate from the cell walls inside the leaf. This will increase the water potential gradient between the leaf interior and the outside air causing water to leave the leaf more quickly, thereby increasing the rate of transpiration.

A fully grown tree may lose several hundred gallons (a few cubic meters) of water through its leaves on a hot, dry day. About 90% of the water that enters a plant's roots is used for this process. The transpiration ratio is the ratio of the mass of water transpired to the mass of dry matter produced; the transpiration ratio of crops tends to fall between 200 and 1000 (i.e., crop plants transpire 200 to 1000 kg of water for every kg of dry matter produced) (Martin, Leonard & Stamp 1976, p. 81).
In botany, chlorosis is a condition in which plant foliage produces insufficient chlorophyll. When this happens, leaves do not have their normal green color; they may be pale green, yellow, or yellow-white. The affected plant has little or no ability to manufacture carbohydrates and may die unless the cause of its chlorophyll insufficiency is treated. Specific nutrient deficiencies (often aggravated by high pH) produce chlorosis, which may be corrected by supplemental feedings of iron, magnesium or nitrogen compounds in various combinations. Some pesticides, particularly herbicides, may also cause chlorosis, both to target weeds and occasionally to the crop being treated.
horticultural technique of training trees through pruning and grafting in order to create formal "two-dimensional" or single plane patterns by the branches of the tree. The technique was popular in the Middle Ages in Europe to decorate solid walls by such trees planted near them, although evidence exists suggesting that the technique dates back much farther, perhaps even to ancient Egypt. The word espalier initially referred to the actual trellis on which the plant was trained to grow, but over time has come to be used to describe the technique.
leaching is the art of training trees into a raised hedge. Commonly, deciduous trees are planted in lines, then shaped to form a flat plane above the ground level. Branches are woven together and will grow together, due to a natural phenomenon called inosculation. Pleaching is also known as arborsculpting.
Pollarding is a woodland management method of encouraging lateral branches by cutting off a tree stem two metres or so above ground level.

If pollarding is done repeatedly over the years, a somewhat expanded (or swollen) tree trunk will result, and multiple new side and top shoots will grow on it.

The main reason for this type of practice, rather than coppicing, was in wood-pastures and grazing areas where growth from the ground upwards was less practicable, due to the required area for grazing which would have been reduced by thickets of low tree growth. Pollarding above head height also protects valuable timber or poles from being damaged by browsing animals such as rabbits or deer.

An incidental effect of pollarding is the encouragement of underbrush growth due to increased levels of light reaching the woodland floor. This can increase species diversity. However, in woodland where pollarding was once common but has now ceased, the opposite effect occurs as the side and top shoots develop into trunk-sized branches. An example of this occurs in Epping Forest in London/Essex, UK, the majority of which was pollarded until the late 19th century. Here, light levels on the woodland floor are extremely low due to the thick growth of the pollarded trees.

Good examples of trees which are regularly pollarded are willows in areas surrounding meadows. The technique is also used in Africa for Moringa trees, to bring the nutritious leaves into easier reach for harvesting. Pollarding is also used in urban forestry in certain areas for reasons such as tree size management, safety and health concerns. It removes rotting or plagued branches for the overall health of the tree, living and dead branches that could harm property and people, as well as expanded foliage in spring for aesthetic, shade and pollution concerns.

A tree that has been pollarded is known as a pollard. A tree which has not been pollarded is called a maiden or maiden tree; which also refers to the fact that pollarding is normally first undertaken when the tree is quite young.

The term pollarding is also sometimes used in the practice of arboriculture for a particular form of tree management. This consists of the removal of all minor branches of a tree to leave just the trunk (to at least head height, or about 2 meters height) and a framework of major branches. The tree is then given some years to regrow, after which the process may be repeated.

Oak trees, when very old, can form new trunks from the growth of pollard branches - i.e. surviving branches which have split away from the main branch naturally.
Grafting is a method of plant propagation widely used in horticulture, where the tissues of one plant are encouraged to fuse with those of another. It is most commonly used for the propagation of trees and shrubs grown commercially. (Grafting is limited to dicots and gymnosperms. Monocots lack the vascular cambium required.)

In most cases, one plant is selected for its roots, and this is called the stock or rootstock. The other plant is selected for its stems, leaves, flowers, or fruits and is called the scion.

In stem grafting, a common grafting method, a shoot of a selected, desired plant cultivar is grafted onto the stock of another type. In another common form called budding, a dormant side bud is grafted on the stem of another stock plant, and when it has fused successfully, it is encouraged to grow by cutting out the stem above the new bud.

For successful grafting to take place, the vascular cambium tissues of the stock and scion plants must be placed in contact with each other. Both tissues must be kept alive till the graft has taken, usually a period of a few weeks. Successful grafting only requires that a vascular connection takes place between the two tissues. A physical weak point often still occurs at the graft, because the structural tissue of the two distinct plants, such as wood may not fuse.

Grafting can only be done between reasonably closely related plants. Most often the limits of success are with other species in the same genus although this is not always true. Not all species in the same genus will necessarily graft successfully (e.g. Norway maple will not graft onto Sugar maple). Even different cultivars within the same species may not graft successfully. Conversely, in some cases, plants in different but closely related genera in the same family can graft successfully (e.g. larch, which is in the genus Larix, will graft onto Douglas-fir in the genus Pseudotsuga).
A meristem is a tissue in plants consisting of undifferentiated cells (meristematic cells) and found in zones of the plant where growth can take place - the roots and shoots.

Differentiated plant cells generally cannot divide or produce cells of a different type. Therefore, cell division in the meristem is required to provide new cells for expansion and differentiation of tissues and initiation of new organs, providing the basic structure of the plant body.

Meristematic cells are analogous in function to stem cells in animals, are incompletely or not at all differentiated, and are capable of continued cellular division (youthful). Furthermore, the cells are small and protoplasm fills the cell completely. The vacuoles are extremely small. The cytoplasm does not contain differentiated plastids (chloroplasts or chromoplasts), although they are present in rudimentary form (proplastids). Meristematic cells are packed closely together without intercellular cavities. The cell wall is a very thin primary cell wall.
The xylem is the principal water-conducting tissue of vascular plants. It consists of tracheary elements, tracheids and wood vessels and of additional xylem fibres. All of them are elongated cells with secondary cell walls that lack protoplasts at maturity. Bordered pits are typical for tracheids, while wood vessels are marked by perforated or completely dissolved final walls. The xylem also takes part in food storage, support and the conduction of minerals. Xylem and phloem together form a continuous system of vascular tissue extending throughout the plant.

The word “xylem” is derived from classical Greek ξυλον, "wood", and indeed the best known xylem tissue is wood. The xylem transports sap from the root up the plant: xylem sap consists mainly of water and inorganic ions, although it can contain a number of organic chemicals as well.

This transport is not powered by energy spent by the tracheary elements themselves, which are dead at maturity and no longer have living contents. Two phenomena cause xylem sap to flow:

* By far the most important cause of xylem sap flow is transpirational pull. The reverse of root pressure, this is caused by the transpiration of water. In larger plants such as trees, the root pressure and transpirational pull work together as a pump that pulls sap from the soil up to where it is transpired.
* The soil solution (see soil) is more dilute than the cytosol of the root cells. Thus, water moves osmotically into the cells, creating root pressure. Root pressure is very variable between different plants; examples include up to 145 kPa in Vitis riparia but around zero in Celastrus orbiculatus [1].

Xylem can be found:

* in vascular bundles, present in non-woody plants and non-woody plant parts
* in secondary xylem, laid down by a meristem called the vascular cambium
* as part of a stelar arrangement not divided into bundles, as in many ferns.

Note that, in transitional stages of plants with secondary growth, the first two categories are not mutually exclusive, although usually a vascular bundle will contain primary xylem only. The most distinctive cells found in xylem are the tracheary elements: tracheids and vessel elements. However, the xylem is a complex tissue of plants, which means that it includes more than one type of cell. In fact, xylem contains other kinds of cells in addition to those that serve to transport water.
Biennial is a term referring to a period of two years, much in the same way centennial refers to 100 years. If an event occurs every two years, it can be said to occur biennially. This is commonly used in reference to legislative agendas in U.S. states (often as biennium), as many representatives are elected to two-year terms.
A perennial plant or perennial (Latin per, "through", annus, "year") is a plant that lives for more than two years. Herbaceous perennials are plants that do not form woody tissue and woody perennials are plants that develop a woody base or root system from which the foliage and flower stems grow. The term perennial more commonly describes herbaceous perennials, since woody plants (i.e., trees and shrubs) are always perennials. Perennials that flower and fruit only once and then die are termed monocarpic or semelparous. However, most perennials are polycarpic, flowering over many seasons in their lifetime.

In warmer and more clement climates, perennials grow continuously. In seasonal climates, their growth is limited to the growing season. For example, in temperate regions a perennial plant may grow and bloom during the warm part of the year, with the foliage dying back in the winter. These plants are deciduous perennials. Regrowth is from existing stem tissue. In many parts of the world, seasonality is expressed as wet and dry periods rather than warm and cold periods. In some species, perennials retain their foliage all year round; these are evergreen perennials.
One of the primary nutrients. It stimulates root growth, aids in disease resistance, and improves flower and fruit production. Like phosphorous, potassium should be applied near the roots t be most effective. Symptoms of potassium deficiency in plants are tip and marginal burn starting on more mature leaves, weak stalks, poor flower or fruit development, and slow growth
Calcium, magnesium, and Sulfur
The secondary nutrients often grouped with the micronutrients, but determinied to be more critical that other nutrients in that group. These are generally abundant in most soils. Calcium is an essential part of cell formation and structure. Magnesium is essential for photosynthesis. Sulfur is used in protein synthesis.
Certain organic chemicals used to form strong bonds with nutrient metals (Iron, Zinc, manganese, and Copper). Chelates used in fertilizers are soluable and help keep nutrient metals mobile in the soil. Thus aiding in availability to plants. Chelated iron is commonly used in the treatment of iron cholorosis.
Soil Amendments
There are three classifications, all of which are used to improve soil structure, PH, or fertility.
Chemical- includes gypsum, lime, sulfur, and others
Mineral- Includes perlite, vermiculite, and sand
Organic- Includes humus, peat moss, manure, and others.
Decomposed organic matter which can aid in flocculating clay soils and help increase water holding capacity and fertility of sandy soils.
Refers to chemical amendment composed of calcium. used to raise PH of overly acid soils, and to improve some clay soils by causing clay particles to bind together into larger units, thus improving aeration and drainage.
Refers to chemical amendment composed of calcium and sulfur. Used ti improve some clay soils by causing clay particles to bind together into larger units, thus improving aeration and drainage.
Palms are sized by height, either two heights may be specified. Overall height is from ground to teh arc made by the uppermost arching frond. Trunk Height is from teh ground to teh base of the heart leaf.
The molecular formula for ammonium nitrogen. A form of nitrogen used by plants which is chracterized by being bound to the surfaces if soil particles and thus, unable to move to roots.
The molecular formual for phosphorus absorbed by plants. Phosphorus is relatively immobile in teh soil and thus, needs to be near the roots to be of use to the plant. Phosphorus stimulates early root growth and root formation, hastens maturity, and promotes flower and seed production.
The element of potassium absorebed by plants, like phosphorous potassium is relatively immobile in the soil and thus needs to be near the roots to be of any use to the plant. Potassium is essential for translocation of sugars, encourages root growth, enhances quality of flower and fruit production and improves resistance to disease.
the abbreviation for the elemnt calcium. Calcium is generally abundant in most soils. It is an essential part of cell wall structure and must be present for tegh formation of new cells.
The abbreviation for the element magnesium. Magnesium is generallyy abundant in most soils, but is more often deficient that calcium. The chlorophyll molecule contains magnesium and is therefor essential for photosynthesis.
Earthquake sesimic zone
allows development but limits the development and alerts potential owners that the area is near a know fault.
geologic study zone
Places restrictions on development to allow a govermental entity to evaluate the stabilityof a particular area
Open space
restricts development on property and sets it aside for all to benefit
a written document involving a promise to be fulfilled for a specific payment
a form of encumberance which usally makes property security for the payment of debt or discharge of an obligation
stop notice
a form of encumberance on funds due
limit the use or occupancy of the and
are promises to do or not to do something, and the penalty for not following teh set conditions isthe taking back of the property by the grantor.
bid bonds
bid bonds guarantee that teh contract, if his propsal is accepted , 5%-10% of the bid amount.
performance bond
guarantees that the work will be performed , 50% -100% of the bid amount.
Payment bond
guarantees that the contractor will pay all of his bills for labor and materials, 50%-100% of teh bid amount.
labor and materials bond
guarantees that the contractor will pay all of his bills for labor and materials 50%-100% of teh bid amount.
Usual parts of a general contract
work included in plans
contractors examination of the premises
interpretation of the contract documents
iprocess and completion of teh contract
permits required
contractors responsibility
site prtection and safety
payment intervals and billing
indeminity contract holding owner harmless
beneficial use of construction site
Notice of completion
a written notice filed with the county recorder which indicates that construction on a project is complete and includes:
a. the date the job was completed
b. The name and address of teh owner
c. The street address and description of teh work performed
D. The name of the contractor
prime professional
the lead agemncy which is coordinating teh efforts of preparing contract documents for a specific project with the assistance of sub-contracting professionals. The prime professional is responsible for coordinating teh work of others in order to make the final plans a working document.