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20 Cards in this Set

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What are changes in an organism's genetic material.
Mutations
What is called when a physician analyzes a karyotype made using cells grown from a sample of the chorionic villi.
Chorionic Villi Sampling
When a fragment of a chromosomes break off, it can be lost when the cell divides, causing a mutation called a --------.
Deletion
When the chromosome fragment attaches to its homologous chromosomemm which will then carry two copies of a certain set of genes, what is it called.
Duplication
Sometimes when the fragment reatteches to thre original chromosome in teh reverse orientationm producing a mutation called an ---------.
inversion
What is the event called when the fragment may join a nonhomologous chromosomem.
Translocation
this syndrome features:A short stature, a round face with upper eyelids theat cover the inner corners of the eyes, and, most sighificantly, varying degrees of mental retardation.
Down syndrome
In disjunction, one or more chromosomes may fail to separtate properly, this is called what?
Nondisjunction
The oppsite of disjunction
What is this process called when a physician uses a needle adn syringe to remove a small amount of the fluid from the amnion.
Amniocentesis
The human body contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, what are the two copies called.
Homologous Chromosomes
When a cell contains two homolougs of each chromosome, it is termed -------.
Diploid
(The first two letters mean 2)
What is a egg and sperm cell called
Gametes
A cell contains only one homologue of each chromosome is called what.
Haploid
What is a fertilized egg cell in the first cell ofa new individual.
Zygote
(the first stage of a baby)
the condition in which a diploid cell has an wtra chromosomeis called
-------.
Trisomy
What is teh collecion of chromosome found in an insividual's cells.
Karyotype
What is a segment of DNA that transmitsd information from parent to offsping
Gene
(its in the chromosomes)
What is a rod-shaped structure that forms when a single DNA molecule and associated proteins coil tightly before cell division.
Chromosomes
(Its a "X" shape)
What are two copies of chromosomes called.
Chromatids
What is the point called where two chromatids are attached by a protein disk.
Centromere