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24 Cards in this Set

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American Revolution
-by 1750 the British empire included 13 colonies on the eastern coast of North America

- 1776 - colonies declared independence

-with the aid of French, Dutch, and Spanish forces, the colonies beat the British
Magna Carta
- limited the power of English monarchs:
1. king could not raise new taxes without consulting the body that would later become Parliament

*influenced America by making colonist feel taxation without representation was unjust
Thomas Paine
wrote pamphlet "Common Snese" - stated colonist should no longer be the subjects of a distant monarch
The Declaration of Independence
Thomas Jefferson drafted the original

-wrote that governments rule only with the consent of the governed and protection of unalienable rights
The Constitution
-Social Contract - "by the people, for the people"

-Separation of Powers - power divided between federal and state ; 3 branches ; separation of powers
*Montesquieu

-Protection of Rights - Bill of Rights ; feedom of spech and religion
The French Revolution:
Causes
Absolute Monarchy - denied basic rights

Social inequality -
1. First Estate- clergy
2. Second Estate- titled nobility
*1st and 2nd estates did not pay taxes, were extremely wealthy, and owned much of the property
3. Third Estate- bourgeoisie (middle class), poor city workers, rural peasants (largest group)
*heavy tax burden, few rights
The French Revolution:
Causes
II
Economic Injustices- lavish lifestyles of rulers led the nation to be in debt, and poor harvest in 1789 increased food costs

Enlightenmnet- thinkers called for democratic reforms and equal taxation

English and American- Glorious Revolution and American Revolution inspired riots
Estates General
1789 - called for by Louis XVI

-body made up of representatives of all three estates
National Assembly
The third estate, the only elected group in the estates general, declared itself the National Assembly

Vowed to write a new constitution for France
Seizure of the Bastille
July 14, 1789

Stormed the prison, which held 7 (?) people
Began a period of time called the Great Fear, during which peasants stormed and destroyed the homes of nobles
Declaration of the Rights of Man and The Citizen
1789
-National Assembly abolished the privileges of the 1st and 2nd estates
States:
1. all men have natural rights
2. job of government is to protect the natural rights
3. all male citizens equality under the law
4. practice any religion
5. taxation based on income
Constitution of 1791
written by National Assembly
-set up a limited monarchy and representative assembly
-people had natural rights, job of government to protect those rights
-put the Church under state control
French Wars to spread revoloutions
1792 - France declared war on Austria, Prussia, Britain, and several other states

1792 - radicals took control of the Assembly, ended the monarchy, and declared France a republic
*slogan- "liberty, equality, fraternity"

-1793- king was executed
Reign of Terror
followed execution of king in 1793

- led by Maximillian Robespierre, radical revolutionary

tens of thousands executed

Robespierre was executed and the reign ended
Directory
1795 - five-man directory supported by a legislature held power in France

government was eak and inefficient

helped Napoleon Bonaparte rise as an ambitious military leader
Napoleon Bonaparte
when revolution began he was a low-level military officer
-won important victories against Austria and Britain

1799- overthrew the weak Directory in a coup d'etat

-organized a new government and placed himself in charge
1802- took title "Emperor of the French"
-claimed Absolute Power
Napoleon's Achievements
Economy: controlled prices, supported new industry, built roads and canals

Education: established a government-supervised public school system

Napoleonic Code: legal code that included many Enlightenment ideas, such as the legal equality of crtitizens and religious toleration
coup d'etat
revolt by military leaders to overthrow a government
Napoleon's Empire
1804-1814
conquered much of Europe
only Britain and Russia remained beyond reach ; Britain shielded from French troops by navy and English channel
Napoleon's Fall
-most people in conquered states looked upon Napoleons armies as foreign oppressors
-people revolted again French rule

-Invasion of Russia in 1812 :
Russians "scorched earth" policy left French troops hungry and cold, war lost during Russias long winters

-1813 - alliance of Britain, Austria, Russia and Prussia defeated Napoleon, stepped down in 1814
Battle of Waterloo
1815- Napoleon returned to power but British and pRussians defeated hinm at Waterloo

-ended Napoleon's reign and spent the rest of his life in exile
Toussaint L'Ouverture
1791 - self educated former slave
led a revolt on Haiti where French planters owned sugar plantations

-Touissaint L'Ouverture gained control of much of the islande

1798 - slaves gained independence

1802- Napoleon sent an army to Haiti, Toussaint led a guerrilla war, French captured Toussaint, but yellow fever took a heavy toll

1804- Haitians declared independence
1820- Haitians become a republic
Simon Bolivar
early 1800's, educated creole
led resistance movements against Spanish

"Liberator"

1810- began struggle against the Spanish ; for 12 years led military campaigns that won independence for Venezuela, New Granada (Columbia), Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia
Jose de San Martin
Defeated Spanish in Argentina and Chile in the 1810's

worked with Simon Bolivar