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17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Scientific Revolution
period of change when scientists and philosophers challenged old ideas based on spirit of the Renaissance
Nicolaus Copernicus
mid 1500's
Polish scholar

universe was heliocentric, not geocentric
based on mathematical formulas
Galileo Gallilei
early 1600's
Italian astronomer

support the heiocentric theory by use of a telescope and studies of the planets and heavenly bodies
-threatened church teachings
-was put on trial and when faced with death was forced to retract his ideas
Isaac Newton
Enlish Scholar

built on the knowledge of Copernicus and Galileo, used mathematiocs to prove the sxistence of a force that kept planest in their orbits

Found the force of gravity, force tha tmade objects fall toward Earth, theorize dhtat nature follows uniform laws
Scientific Method
experimentation and ovservation rather than on past authorities
Rene Descartes

challenged the idea that new knowledge shouldbe made to fit existing tradition ideas
-believed that reason rahter than tradition should be the way to discover truth
natural law
laws that govern human behavior by applying the scientific method of investigation and voservation, shcolars thought that they could solve the problems of society
Period of the 1700's in which people rejected traditional ideas and supported a belief in human reason
belief that logical thought can lead to truth
John Locke
English Thinker
late 1600's

-people possess natural rights
*life, liberty, property
-people form governments to protect rights
-if governments fail, people can overthrow them
Baron de Montesquieu
French Thinker
late 1700's

-powers of government should be separated into three branches: legislative, executive and judicial
-separtaion of powers would prevent tyranny, create system of checks and balances
French thnker

-free speech
-used sharp wit to criticize French government and the Catholic Church for their faillure to permit relkigious teloertaion and intellectual freedom
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
French philosopher

-"The Social Contract" - believed people were naturally good, but corrupted by evils of society, such as unequal distribution of property
-will of the majority, general will- majority should always work for the greater good
Enlightened Despots
monarchs who accepted Enlightenment ideas
-absolute powers who used thier power to reform society
Maria Theresa
Austrian Ruler

-improved tax system by forcing nobles and clergy to pay taxes
-made primary education available to children in her kingdom
Jospeh II
Maria Theresa's son

-most radical despot
-modernized Austria's government
-chose officials for talents, not status
-practiced religious toleration, ended censorship, abolished serfdom
Catherine the Great
Empress of Russia
1762- ?

-asked advice of nobles, free peasants, townspeople
-built schools and hospitals
-promoted education of women, extended religious teloerance