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11 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
reinforcer losing its value through overuse.

- continuous reinforcement

-best schedule for acquiring new behaviors

-means fullness i.e the kid is full of candies and doesn't want any more
Classical Conditioning
- aka respondent (i.e involuntary) Pavlovian, stimulus-response conditioning
_learning is based on pairing
- focuses on responses that are automatic, involuntary, not deliberate, don't require effort
Operant Conditioning
- aka Skinnerian conditioning, instrumental conditioning (behavior is instrumental or goal directed toward getting rewards)
- learning base on rewards and punishment
-explains voluntary behaviors (e.g getting dressed, doing work)
behavioral contrast
- two behaviors being reinforced equally then 1 is being reinforced
-typically the behavior that is being reinforced increases in frequency, while the behavior that is no longer being reinforced decreases.
Premack Principle
-aka Grandma's rule
- the same activity may act as a stronger or weaker reinforcer depending on the context.
-High frequecy behavior (i.e something the prsn likes to do) is used to reinforce a low freq behavior (i.e something the prsn doesn't much care to do)
-ex. "if you eat your spinach (low freq behavior) you can go out to play (high freq behavior)
Social Learning Theory
-learning, especially complex learning (e.g brain surgery) occurs through observation and modeling (imitation)
-models who were high status, nurturant, and of the same sex as observer were more likely imitated than models who were low status, non-nurturant, or of opposite sex
-In terms of reinforcement, Bandura believed we don't perform behaviors b/ we have been reinforced in the past, but rather b/c we anticipate reinforcement in the future.
-incorporates the cognitive action of the learner
reciprocal determinism
social theorists believe an interactive triad of the prsn, his/her behavior, and the environment regulate the indv's behavior.
posited observational learning requires 4 steps:
1) attention (attending to model)
2) retention ( remembering what is seen/heard)
3) production ( reproducing the memory during imitation)
4) motivation (reinforcement for accurate performance)
- gradual reduction prompting

- HINT: fading can be easily associated w/ prompting if one thinks of fading a song on the radio i.e slowly the volume. One slowly "fades out" the prompting.

- operant conditioning
- continuous reinforcement

- After acquisition, the schedule of reinforcement is best changed from continuous to intermittent
-Candy example- reducing the amount of candies would certainly result in thinning
shaping (by successive approximations)
- i.e baby steps
-(shaping 1 behavior)