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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the Theological Virtues
Faith, hope, love
freedom of self-determination (as distinguished from fate)
nature v. nurture, the freedom to decide about one’s self, deepest level of who we are
fundamental stance
basic direction of our lives
fundamental options
moments of choice in our lives which establish or confirm the character and direction of our lives
head knowledge (conceptual)
knowledge of moral values, information, facts; just because you know it doesn’t mean you feel it
heart knowledge (evaluative)
personal encounter, felt knowledge
magesterium:
hierarchy of the Catholic Church, teaching authority that’s role is to help prevent error and mistakes (includes pope, priests, religious writings)
roman curia
the group of organizations that assist the pope in his duty to serve the church, answers moral questions and clarifies difficult issues
infallible teaching
declared by the pope and accepted as absolutely true
sense of the faithful
Morals
How we act on our ethics
first moral question for the Christian
What does it mean to be created in the image and likeness of God and live in Jesus?
attitudes of Catholicism towards Scripture
Should look at the bible as a whole and not in bits and pices

Not a book of ethics
Old Testament (Hebrew Scriptures)
Genesis- gave humans freedom, Adam and Eve—negative freedom
Exodus- faith/salvation, father of nations, savior from Egypt
the Prophets- people disobeyed Commandments b/c they thought God would protect them no matter what, prophets sent to reclaim people, insist on sincerity of religious practices, interiorization of the law
Wisdom Literature- Job, Psalms, Proverbs, individual not community, wisdom is feminine, spiritual moral life revolved around covenant
5 messages of Jesus’ teaching
1. kingdom of God/heaven
- God’s new intervention
- dynamism of God’s love erupting in time; nonterritorial eschatological reality (end of time); central image of Jesus’ teaching
2. call to conversion and repentance
- key to the door of the kingdom
- grace of God, calls us to reform
3. Sermon on the Mount
- Jesus proclaims new law
- handbook for disciples
- interiorization of the law
- Beatitudes lay down rules for disciple of Christ, Lord’s prayer
4. Great Commandment of Love
- Christian perfection obtained through love
- perfection: not harmonious personality, morally faultless but holiness, must love all
- love involves religious acts, prayer, forgiveness
- direction of attitude/concern/will not emotions or feelings
5. the demands of discipleship
- take up the cross and follow
- dangers of wealth, marriage = arrangement of creation, celibacy, fasting, strive to enter Heaven
- leave everything behind, obedience to God
5 foundations of the Church in the New Testament
1. influence of the Holy Spirit
- unifying power of God’s love
- through Spirit we become “spiritual persons”, children of God
- gift of the Holy Spirit inaugurates the transformation of the Christian which is a lifelong process
2. shared a communion of life
- koinonia: relationships with God and with others
- communal ethics, breaking of bread
- “one in Christ” with each other
3. dying/rising ethics
- everything a Christian is, is derived from death and resurrection of Jesus
- self giving service, love one another as He loved us, laying down one’s life
4. deeper understanding of the Great Commandment
- charity, love of neighbor = perfection
- fraternal love = true discipleship
5. eschatological perspective
- what’s going to happen at the end?
- we are already saved but we still must live
biblical perspective on conversion in Old Testament and New Testament
religious conversion
intellectual conversion
affective conversion
moral conversion
just war criteria
just cause: WWII, Rwanda, etc
competent authority: must be decided by those in control of the public
comparative justice: does our cause justify killing?
right intention: good intentions, capture over injury
last resort: all peaceful ideas must be attempted
probability of success: only fight if you will win
proportionality: damage shouldn’t outweigh good gained
discrimination: during war—can’t kill civilians/innocent people
conscientious objection
conscientious objectors: opposed to any form of war
noncombatant conscientious objectors: oppose to killing in war, will allow for noncombatant duties (medic, etc.)
conscientious objectors to paying for war
selective objectors: won’t participate in an unjust war
nuclear pacifists: opposed to nuclear war, some opposed to all war b/c they think it will lead to a nuclear war
noncooperators with the draft
conscience
ability to decipher right and wrong, judgment of reason
what does the Catholic Church teach about following one’s conscience
Church teaches to always follow your conscience
formation of conscience
a life-long process, we continually learn
guilt
a sign that we are uncomfortable with our behavior
shame
always destructive, the message that the person is not good
virtue
a habitual and firm disposition to do good
what do virtues have to do with a person’s conscience
virtues are our judges of right and wrong, our conscience is how we apply virtues
cardinal virtues
- prudence
- justice
- fortitude
- temperance
Venial sin
Choices and actions which spring from a more peripheral level of our being – not rooted in our hearts We sin first in our hearts, although often our sins are expressed in outward actions. Venial sin are what weakens the roots of our fundamental commitment to God and to being a loving person
mortal sin
Radically disrupts the person’s relationship with God and turns the person away from an openness to life and love. One walks into mortal sin with clear heard, open eyes, and a committed heart. Conscious decision to act in a way which fashions a style of life that turns us away from relating to God, others and the world in a positive life-giving way
Social Sin
How social structures can shape our existence for the worse. describes the consequences of individual choices which form structures wherein people suffer various forms of oppressions and exploitations. Often we are not aware of how social structures we are apart of are sinful Social Sin only stops when people become aware and stop taking part in it
Natural Law
reason reflecting on human experience discovering moral value
fundamental norms
- good: actualizing human potential
- evil: whatever frustrates human potential
specific norms
- tendency to persevere in being (found in everything)/ instinct for survival
- tendency towards procreation and education of offspring (found in animals)
- tendency towards truth and cooperating with one another in social existence (found in humans)
- must share, trust
Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development (stages and motivations)
Level Preconventional Reasoning

Stage 1 Punishment obedience Orientation

Persons in this stage obey rules to avoid punishment. A good or bad actions is determined by its physical consequences – what could happen

Stage 2 Personal Reward Orientation

In this stage personal needs determine right or wrong. I will do something if I get something out of it.


Level 2 Conventional Reasoning

Stage 3 Good Boy Nice Girl Orientation

To a person in this stage good means “nice.” Ones’ s behavior is determined by what pleases and is approved by others – pressure approval of others

Stage 4 Law and Order Orientation

When deciding the punishment for a given wrong doing, laws are absolute. In all cases authority must be respected and the social order maintained – us vs. them


Level 3 Postconventional Reasoning

Stage 5 Social Contract

Moral Judgment is motivated by respecting social order, concern for the common good and living under determined laws – the golden rule

Stage 6
Self- actualization

Highest principles – Justice Human Rights
sense of the faithful
the lay people of the church have a sense for what is right, the leaders of the church should not ignore them
John Courtney Murray
every man has a right to religious freedom
John Henry Newman
sense of the faithful, consult the lay community
Mary Ward
Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary, a group on nuns that wore secular clothes
MLK's views on just and unjust laws
“ A just law is a man-made code that squared with the moral law or the law of God. An unjust law is a code that is out of harmony with the moral law” Just laws uplift people and laws divide (or segregate) them
Catholic Social Teaching
- life and dignity of the human person
- The human person is central, the clearest reflection of God among us.
- Each person possesses a basic dignity that comes from God, not from any human quality or accomplishment.
- The test of every human institution or policy is whether it enhances or threatens human life and human dignity.
- call to family, community, and participation
- No community is more central than the family; it is the basic cell of society. It is where we learn and act on out value. What happens in the family is at the basis of a truly human life.
- We have the right and responsibility to participate in and contribute to the broader communities of society. The state and other institutions of political and economic life, with both their limitations and obligations, are instruments to protect the life, dignity, and rights of the human person. Catholic social teaching does not offer clear guidance on the role of government. When basic human needs are not being met by private initiative, the people must work through their government, at appropriate levels to meet those needs.
- A central test of political, legal, and economic institutions is what they do to people, what they do for people, and how people participate in them.
- rights and responsibilities of the human person
- Flowing from out God-given dignity, each person has basic rights and responsibilities.
- These include: the rights to freedom of conscience and religious liberty, to raise a family, to immigrate, to live from unfair discrimination, and to have a share of earthly goods sufficient for oneself and one’s family. People have a fundamental right to life and those things that make life truly human: food, clothing, shelter, healthcare, education, security, social services, and employment.
- Corresponding to these rights are duties and responsibilities – to one another, to our families, and to the larger society – to respect the rights of others and work for the common good.
- option for the poor
- Poor and vulnerable people have a special place in CST. A basic moral - test of a society is how its most vulnerable members are faring.
- Our tradition calls us to put the needs of the poor and vulnerable first (Mt. 25: 1 – 46).
- We must seek creative ways to expand the emphasis of out nation’s founders on the individual rights and freedom by extending democratic ideals to economic life and thus ensure that the basic requirements for life with dignity are accessible for all.
- the dignity of work and the rights of workers
- Work is more than earning a living. IT is an expression of out dignity and a form of continuing participation in God’s creation.
- People have a right to decent and productive work, to decent and productive work, to decent and fair wages, to private property and economic initiative.
- Traditionally, workers have the strong support of the church in forming and joining unions and workers associations of their choosing in the exercise of their dignity and rights.
- In Catholic teaching, the economy exists to serve people, not the other way around.
- solidarity
- We are one human family, whatever, our national, racial, ethnic, economic, and ideological differences.
- We are out brothers’ and sisters’ keepers. In a limited world, our responsibilities to one another cross national and other boundaries.
- Solidarity is the contemporary expression of the traditional Catholic image of the Mystical Body. “Loving our neighbor” has global dimensions in an interdependent world.
- care for God’s creation
- Called to be co-creators with God and to have “dominion” over the earth, we are called to be good stewards of what God has entrusted to us.
- It is a requirement of our faith that we protect creation and each other from the harm that we can bring.
- The environmental challenge has fundamental, moral, and ethical dimensions to it that we simply cannot ignore.
Rerum Novarum
(Pope Leo XIII) this article covers the topic of work and workers’ rights, talks about justice within the workplace
charity
on the needs of individual, immediate need
justice
rights of the individual, social structures, underlying causes
2 philosophies do not believe in Objective truth
subjectivism, skepticism
biblical perspective on conversion in Old Testament and New Testament
religious conversion
intellectual conversion
affective conversion
moral conversion
just war criteria
just cause: WWII, Rwanda, etc
competent authority: must be decided by those in control of the public
comparative justice: does our cause justify killing?
right intention: good intentions, capture over injury
last resort: all peaceful ideas must be attempted
probability of success: only fight if you will win
proportionality: damage shouldn’t outweigh good gained
discrimination: during war—can’t kill civilians/innocent people
conscientious objection
conscientious objectors: opposed to any form of war
noncombatant conscientious objectors: oppose to killing in war, will allow for noncombatant duties (medic, etc.)
conscientious objectors to paying for war
selective objectors: won’t participate in an unjust war
nuclear pacifists: opposed to nuclear war, some opposed to all war b/c they think it will lead to a nuclear war
noncooperators with the draft
conscience
ability to decipher right and wrong, judgment of reason
what does the Catholic Church teach about following one’s conscience
Church teaches to always follow your conscience
formation of conscience
a life-long process, we continually learn
guilt
a sign that we are uncomfortable with our behavior
shame
always destructive, the message that the person is not good
virtue
a habitual and firm disposition to do good
what do virtues have to do with a person’s conscience
virtues are our judges of right and wrong, our conscience is how we apply virtues
cardinal virtues
- prudence
- justice
- fortitude
- temperance
Venial sin
Choices and actions which spring from a more peripheral level of our being – not rooted in our hearts We sin first in our hearts, although often our sins are expressed in outward actions. Venial sin are what weakens the roots of our fundamental commitment to God and to being a loving person
mortal sin
Radically disrupts the person’s relationship with God and turns the person away from an openness to life and love. One walks into mortal sin with clear heard, open eyes, and a committed heart. Conscious decision to act in a way which fashions a style of life that turns us away from relating to God, others and the world in a positive life-giving way
Social Sin
How social structures can shape our existence for the worse. describes the consequences of individual choices which form structures wherein people suffer various forms of oppressions and exploitations. Often we are not aware of how social structures we are apart of are sinful Social Sin only stops when people become aware and stop taking part in it
Natural Law
reason reflecting on human experience discovering moral value