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62 Cards in this Set

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Prodromal phase
comes before the active phase in Schizophrenia and is marked by an obvious deterioration in role functioning as a student, employee, or homemaker. Change in personality
Residual phase
follows the active phase of Schizophrenia. At this point, the most dramatic symptoms of psychosis have improved, but the person continues to be impaired in various ways.
Positive symptoms
dimension of Schizophrenic symptoms that include hallucinations and delusions.
negative symptoms
dimension of Schizophrenic symptoms that include lack of initiative, social withdrawal, and deficits in emotional responding.
Hallucinations
sensory experiences that are not caused by actual external stimuli.
delusions
personal beliefs that are firmly held in spite of their absurd nature.
blunted affect
flattening or restriction of the person’s nonverbal display of emotional responses.
Anhedonia
the inability to experience pleasure.
Avolition
lack of will
Alogia
poverty of speech
disorganized speech
the tendency of some patients to say things that do not make sense. Signs are making irrelevant responses to questions, expressing disconnected ideas, and using words in peculiar ways.
Inappropriate affect
improper emotional expression.
Catatonic type
characterized by symptoms of motor immobility or excessive and purposeless motor activity.
Disorganized type
characterized by disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, and flat or inappropriate affect.
Paranoid type
systematic delusions with persecutory or grandiose content.
Undifferentiated type
psychotic symptoms that either meet the criteria for several subtypes or otherwise do not meet the criteria for the catatonic, disorganized or paranoid types.
Residual type
patients who no longer meet the criteria for active phase symptoms but nevertheless demonstrate continued signs of negative symptoms or attenuates forms of delusions, hallucinations, or disorganized speech.
Expressed emotion (EE):
concept that refers to a collection of negative attitudes displayed by relatives of patients who are being treated for a disorder. If at least one of the relatives is hostile, critical, or emotionally overinvolved, the family environment is typically considered high in EE.
Schizotaxia
theory that states that individuals who are predisposed to schizophrenia inherit a slight neurological defect of unknown form.
Vulnerability marker
a specific measure that might be useful in identifying people who are at risk to a disorder.
Antipsychotic drugs
drugs used to reduce the severity of, and sometimes eliminate, psychotic symptoms.
Atypical antipsychotics
Antipsychotics drugs that are generally more effective than classical antipsychotics in the treatment of negative symptoms.
Emotion
state of physiological arousal defined by subjective states of feeling
affect
refers to the patter of observable behavior, such as facial expression, that are associated with theses subjective feelings
Mood
refers to a persistent and sustained emotional response
Depressed Mood
Depressed feelings such as of disappointment and despair, but which is not yet necessarily part of a clinical syndrome.
Clinical depression
a depressed mood is accompanied by several other symptoms, such as fatigue, loss of energy, difficulty in sleeping, and changes in appetite. As well as changes in thinking and overt behavior.
Mania
disturbance in mood characterized by symptoms such as elation, inflated self-esteem, hyperactivity, and accelerated speaking and thinking. An exaggerated feeling of physical and emotional well-being.
Euphoria
elated mood
Mood Disorders
Broad category of psychopathology that describes depressed and bipolar disorders.
Dysphoric
an unpleasant mood
Somatic symptoms
symptoms related to basic physiological or bodily functions.
Psychomotor retardation:
generalized slowing of physical and emotional reactions
Hypomania
episode of increased energy that is not sever enough to qualify as a full-blown manic episode.
Hypomanic v. manic:
For hypomanic: symptoms need to be present for a minimum of only 4 days (as opposed to a week) not severe enough to impair social or occupational functioning or to require hospitalization.
Melancholia
term used to describe a particularly severe type of depression
Seasonal Affective Disorder
mood disorder associated with changes in season. Symptoms include poor fitness habits and increase in sleep.
Remission
period of recovery
Relapse
a return of active symptoms in a person who has recovered from a previous episode
Hopelessness
a person’s negative expectations about future events and the associated belief that these events cannot be controlled.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs):
most popular antidepressive drug
Tricyclics (TCAs):
antidepressive drug used to treat depression but has many side effects
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO-Is):
antidepressive drug that causes increase in food consumption.
Unipolar mood disorder
Person experiences only episodes of depression
Bipolar Mood Disorder
Only manic episodes with no evidence of depression
Analogue study
studies that focus on behaviors that resemble mental disorders that appear in the natural environment.
Schema
the way a person perceives events
Dissociation
the disruption of normally integrated mental processes
Traumatic stress
events that involve actual or threatened death or serious injury to self or others
flashback
sudden memories during which the trauma is replayed in images or tho
Two-factor theory
classical conditioning creates fears when the terror inherent in trauma is paired with the cues associated with the traumatic event.
Critical incident stress debriefing (CISD
an early intervention 1-5 days following the trauma.
Hysteria
an uncontrollable outburst of emotion or fear
Implicit memory
changes in behavior due to the memory of a prior event but with nonsonscious remembering of the event.
Hypnosis
subjects experience loss of control over their actions in response to suggestions from the hypnotist.
Recovered memories
dramatic recollections of long-ago traumatic experiences supposedly blocked from the conscious mind by dissociation
State-dependent learning
process where learning that takes place in one state of affect or consciousness is best recalled in the same state of affect or consciousness.
Iatrogenesis
the manufacture of the dissociative disorders by their treatment
Somatoform Disorders
problems characterized by unusual physical symptoms that occur in the absence of a known illness.
Malingering
pretending to have a somatoform disorder in order to achieve some external gain, such as a disability payment.
Secondary Gain
belief that symptoms can help a patient avoid responsibility or receive attention.
Retrospective reports
current recollections of past experiences