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75 Cards in this Set

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What is the defination of AOI?
Apnea of Infancy.
What is an ALTE?
Aparent Life Threatening Event.
Name four things that might be part of an ALTE.
Apnea
Color ∆
Marked ∆ in Muscle Tone
Choking or Gagging
IF an ALTE is encountered what are the interventions?
Gently stimulate the trunk by patting or rubbing it.
Turn child supine and flick the feet.
Never vigorously shake the child.
No more than 15-20 seconds should be spent on stimulation before starting CPR.
Define Prodormal
The earliest or first signs and symptoms of a disease process.
What is the clincial name for Whooping Cough?
Pertusses.
When should vomiting be instigated when a parent suspects poisening?
After talking to Poison Control.
Where do children get Lead ingestion? What are some of the outcomes?
From Paint and Soil.
Mental Retardation, Paralysis, Coma, Death.
How is Lead Poisoning diagnosed and treated?
Venous Blood Screaning and treatment from Kelating.
What are the two main types of Child Maltreatment?
Neglect and Abuse.
What are the two types of Neglect?
Physical and Emotional.
What are the two types of Abuse?
Physical and Sexual.
What are some contributing factors to physical abuse?
Special Partnt with a Hx of abuse or low self esteme.
Special Child with a difficult temperment, or the child may remind the abuser of someone else.
Special Circumstances span all groups with an ↑ in ↓ SES.
Abuser may be the caregiver.
What is the number one Nursing Responsibility when abuse is suspected?
Protect the child from further abuse.
What are some objective signs of abuse.
Passive, Acting Out, Poor School Performance, Inappropriate Sexual Play.
What are some signs of abuse with History Taking?
Stories don't match.
Name the three types of FTT.
OFTT = Organic, Renal, Congenital Heart, CF
NFTT = Nonorganic, Lack of parental Knowledge, SES, Poverty
IFTT = Idiopathic, unexplained by the usual organic or environmental etiologies.
What are some Nursing Interventions for FTT.
Primary is to direct Tx at reversing the malnutrition, and provide "catch up" growth.
What determines a child having FTT?
<5th Percentile on Growth Chart.
When should ADHD Medication be administered, and why.
In the morning to maximize its effectiveness in the classroom, and to decrease its potentially insomnia inducing effects during sleeping hours.
What are the 3 main diagnostic criteria of ADHD?
Inattention, Hyperactivity, Impulsivity.
What are two side affects of Ridolin?
↑ Appetite
Insomnia
What is the rule of placement of SIDS Prevention?
Sleep on Back, Prone to Play.
What do young children think about death?
They believe that illness and death is a punishment and that thoughts alone can cause death.
Disease, Immunization, Manifistation, Problems, and Transmission of Chicken Pox
Varicella
Vesicles
Family and Progression to Zoster
Airborn Transmission
Disease, Immunization, Manifistation, Problems, and Transmission of Rubella
German Measles -
Immunication with MMR
Fever, Runny Nose, Cough,Rash
Airborne Coughing/Sneezing
Disease, Immunization, Manifistation, Problems, and Transmission of Pertussis
Whooping Cough- Pertussis,
Immunication with DTaP
Cough is Severe with Inhaling Whoops
Personal Contact/Sneezing
10 Day Incubation
What is Fifth' Disease?
Erythema Infectiosum (Slapped Cheek Disease). 10% risk for fetal death with infected women during first 1/2 of pregnancy.
What are pinworms.
They cause anal itching and are transmitted fecal - oral.
Treatment is with ABX and good hand washing.
What is Reyes Syndrome?
A syndrome marked by acute encephalopathy and fatty infiltration of the liver and possibly of the pancreas, heart, kidney, spleen, and lymph nodes. Commonly follows Viral illness, especially with the concurrent use of ASA or NSAIDS. Dx evaluation from elevated Amonia levels.
What is Kernig's Sign?
A sign of meningeal irritation evidenced by reflex contraction and pain in the hamstring muscles, when attempting to extend the leg after flexing the hip.
What is Brudzinski's Sign?
Flexion of the hips when the neck is flexed from a supine position.
What is Lyme Disease?
Presents as an annular red ring 3-32 days. Systemic symptoms are neurologic, cardiac, musculoskeletal. Treat with ABX
What is the minimum age at which Varicella is usually treated with antivirals?
12 Years or High Risk Immune Compromised.
Describe Scarlet Fever
GABHS results in high fever, pharingitis, rash in folds, strawberry tongue, treated with ABX.
Describe Impetigo
Staff Infection with wheepy crusted skin lesions on face and body. Treaty with topical or systemic ABX. This is highly contagious.
What is Tinea Corporis or Capitis.
Fungal Ringworm. Catellite lesions surround central clearing. Hair loss, skin pigment loss. Tx with Topical antifungals.
What is Pediculosis?
Head Lice causes Itching. Nits on hair and shaft. Comb hair, shampoo, wash clothing and bedding, check all contacts.
What are scabies?
Burrowing Mites. Nighttime itching in skin folds. Treat with topcial lotion. Wash clothing and bedding.
What is the pathophysology of Epilepsy.
Any process that disrupts the stability of the neruonal cell membrane.
Can be genetic, acquired by disease or injury, or ideopathic with an unknown cause.
What are the clinical manifestations and Testing for Epilepsy?
-Partial Focal/Local Seisures with no Loss of Consiousness.
-Complex Partial
-Generalized Absence, myoclonic, tonic-clonic.
What is therapeutic managment for clients with Epilepisy?
Prevent injury, Manage the Airway, Eliminate precipitationg factors.
Use Side Lying recovery and O2.
Nursing Interventions of Epilepisy.
Assess Hx, Rx, PsychSoc.
Impliment seizure precautions, bedrest, padded Side Rails, IV Valium or Phenobarb for Status Elipticus.
How is epilipesy Prevented?
Regular Diet, fluid intake and sleep. Recognize precipitation factors like lights.
What is Talipes Varus?
Talipes in which the heel is turned inward from the midline of the leg.
What is Talipes Valgus?
Talipes in which the heel and foot are turned outward.
What is Talipes Equinus?
Talipes in which the foot is plantar flexed and the person walks on the toes.
What is Talipes Calcaneus?
Talipes in which the foot is dorsiflexed and the heel alone touches the ground, causing the patient to walk on the inner side of the heel.
Can can clubfoot be corrected?
Serial Casting beginning at Birth. Casting at 2 week intervals.
Maximum correction at 8-12 weeks.
What is the most common type of clubfoot accounting for 95%?
Talipes Equineus Varus.
What is a Spica Cast?
Chest to Toes with hole for peri area.
What are some key points of Traction Therapy?
Understand therapy
Maintain traction
Maintain alignment
Skin traction
Skeletal traction
Prevent skin breakdown
Prevent complications
What is the defination of Scolosis?
complex spinal deformity in three planes
Usually involves lateral curvature, spinal rotation causing rib asymmetry and thoracic hypokyphosis
Appears most often during growth spurt of early adolescence.
What are some causes of Scolosis?
Idiopathic – infantile, juvenile, adolescent
Congenital
Neuromuscular
Neurofibrmatosis
Traumatic
Misc – secondary to tumors, nutrition, metabolism
Mesenchymal disease
If Surgery is chosen for Scolosis, what is the goal?
to correct the curvatures on the sagittal and coronal planes, and to have a solid, pain-free fusion in a well-balanced torso, with maximum mobility of the remaining spinal segments
What are some Goals for Child and Family with Scoliosis?
-Child will adjust to method of therapeutic management
-Child will experience an acceptable level of pain relief
-Child will experience no complications
-Child and family will receive appropriate support, encouragement, and education
What is Osteomyelitis?
Inflammation of bone and marrow, usually caused by infection (and less often by radiation or other causes).
What are some clinical manifestations of Osteomyelitis?
Irritable, restless
Elevated temperature, rapid pulse
Dehydration
Localized tenderness, increased warmth, and diffuse swelling around involved bone.
What is JRA?
Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis
What are the clinical manifestations of Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis?
Disorder of joints; onset before age 16
Idiopathic, inflammatory disease of unknown cause
Chronic inflammation of synovium with joint effusion and erosion
What is the Etiology of Lyme Disease?
Borrelia burgdorferi (spirochete) Deer Tick transmission
What is the Presentation of Lyme Disease?
Cardiac, musculoskeletal, neurological symptoms
What is the Management and Treatment of Lyme Disease?
Management-Doxycycline or Amoxicillin; Lyme disease immunization for high risk
What are some preventative measures for Lyme Disease?
Prevention- avoid tick infested areas, cover extremities and head, wear sunscreen.
What is CP?
Non specific term applied to disorders characterized by early onset and impaired movement and posture
Characterized by abnormal muscle tone and coordination.
What are some broad aims of CP Therapy?
Establish locomotion, communication, and self help
Gain optimum appearance and integration of motor functions
Correct associated defects as effectively as possible
Provide educational opportunities adapted to the needs and capabilities of the individual child
Promote socialization experiences with other affected and unaffected children
What is CP?
-Non specific term applied to disorders characterized by early onset and impaired movement and posture
-Characterized by abnormal muscle tone and coordination
-Most common permanent physical disability of childhood
-CP has increased due to improved survival of premature infants
What are some CP Pharmacologic Interventions?
-Antianxiety drugs
-Smooth muscle relaxants
-Antiepileptics
What is Spina Biffida?
Failure of neural tube closure in spine during early development of embryo
What is Therapeutic Managment and Prevention of Spina Biffida?
Therapeutic Management- manage myelomeningocele problems (hydrocephalus, paralysis, ortho deformities, genitourinary abnormalities); possible cardiac or gastro malformations
Prevention-folic acid as prenatal vitamin
What are the two types of Hydrocephalus?
Communicating - Impaired absorption of CSF fluid within the subarachnoid space
NonCommunicating - Obstruction to the flow of CSF through the ventricular system
What is Macewen sign?
Early infancy - abnormally rapid head growth.
What is Bacterial Meningitis?
Infection of the meninges with disease-causing and potentially life-threatening organisms, esp. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Listeria monocytogenes, among others.
What are the clinical manifestations of Bacterial Meningitis in children?
acute onset, fever, chills, headache, CNS changes, nuchal rigidity (very vague symptoms in infants)
What is the presentation of Reye's Syndrome?
Fever, impaired consciousness, hepatic dysfunction (coma and high ammonia)