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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is an Idiosyncratic Reaction to a Medication?
When one under/over reacts to a medication, or has a different from normal reaction, as in when child taking Benadryl becomes over excited, rather than sedated.
What is an anaphylactic reaction?
SUdden constriction of bronchiolar muscles, edema of the pharynx and larynx, and severe wheezing and shorness of breath.
What is used to treat Anaphylactic reactions?
Antihistamines, epinephrine, and bronchodilators.
Define Atelectasis
Collapse of alveoli with retained mucous secretions. S/S include elevated Respirations, dypsnea, fever. Carckles and productive cough.
Define Pneumonia
Inflammation of alveoli. One or more lobes of the lung. S/S fever, chills, productive cough, chest pain, purulent mucus, dyspnea.
Define Hypoxemia
Inadequate concentration of O2 in arterial blood. S/S Restlessness, dyspnea, high or low BP, tachy or brady cardia, diaphoresis and cyanosis.
Define Pulmonary Embolism
Emoblus blocking the pulmonary arterial blood flow to one or more lobes of the lung. S/S dyspnea, sudden chest pain, cyanosis, tachycardia, drop in BP.
Define Hemorrhage
Loss of large amount of blood externally or internally in short period of time. S/S include hypotension, week and rapid pulse, cool and clammy skin, rapid breathing, restlessness, decreased urine putput.
Define Hypovolemic shock.
Inadequate perfusion of tissues and cells from loss of circulatory fluid volume. S/S same as hemorrhage.
Define Thrombophlebitis
Inflammation of vein often accompanied by clot formation. Veins in legs are most commonly affected. S/S include swelling and inflammation of involved site and aching or cramping pain. Vein feels hard and cordlike and sensetive to touch.
Define Thrombus
Formation of a clot attached to interior wall of a vein or artery which can occlude the vessel lumen. S/S Localized tenderness, swollen calf or thigh.
Define Embolus
Piese of thrombus that has dislodged and circulates in bloodstream until it lodges in another vessel, commonly lungs, heart, brain, or mesentery.
Define Payalytic Ileus
Non-mechanical obstruction of the bowel caused by physiological, neurogenic or chemical imbalance associated with decreased peristalsis. Common in intial hours post op.
Define Abdominal Distention
Tetention of air within intestines and ABD cavity during GI Surgery. S/S increased ABD girth, tympanic percussion, fulness or "gas pains".
Define Nausea and Vomiting
Abbreviated as N/V during charting. Symptom of improper gastric emptying or chemical stimulation of vomiting center. Client complains of gagging or feeling full or sick to stomach.
Define Urinary Retention
Involuntary accumulation of urine in bladder as result of loss of muscle tone. S/S include inability to void, restlessness, bladder distention. Appears 6-8 hours post-op.
Define UTI
Urinary Tract Infection as a result of bacterial or yeast contamination. S/S include dysuria, itching, ABD pain, possible fever, coudy urine, WBC and Leukocyte esterase positive on U/A.
Define Wound Infection
An invasion of deep or superficial wound tissues by pahtogenic microorganisms. S/S warm, red, and tender skin around incision. Fever and chills, purulent material exiting from drains or from separated wound edges. Infeciton usually appears 3-6 days after surgery.
Define Wound Dehiscence
Separation of wound edges at suture line. S/S include incerased drainage and appearance of underlying tissues. This usually occurs 6-8 days after surgery.
Define Wound Evisceration
Protrusion of internal organs and tissues through incision. Incidence usually occurs 6-8 days post op.
Define Skin Breakdown
Result of pressure or shearing forces. Surgical clients are at increased risk if alterations in nutrition and circulation are present resulting in edema or delayed healing.
Define Intractable Pain
Pain that is not amenable to analgesics and pain-alleviationg interventions.
Define Intestinal Obstruction
Partial or complete impairment of the forward flow of intestinal contents. Mortality rates are 10% for small and 30% for large bowel obstructions.
Define Volvulus
A twisting of the bowel on itself, causing obstruction.
Define Intussusception
The slipping of one part of an intestine into another part just below it; becoming ensheathed
What is the best Medical Management of Intestinal Obstruction
Insertion of an intestinal tube. Often an intestinal tube both decompresses the bowel, and breaks up the obstruction.
Define Peritonitis
Inflammation of the peritoneal Membrane.
What are the risk factors for peritonitis?
There are no risk factors, because it is a complication of another problem. That could be rupture or gangrene of the gallbladder, perforated peptic ulcer or IBD, bowel obstruction, penetrating wounds.
What tests can reveal peritonitits?
High WBC 20K, with high neutrophil count. ABD X-ray studies are performed which may show dilation and edema of the intestines or free air.
Define Urinary Retention
The inability of the bladder to empty partially or completely during voiding.
What is the most common cause of urinary retention in women?
Detrusor failure when the bladder fails to contract.
What is the most common cause of urinary retention in men?
Obstructive voiding is due to an enlarged prostate
What is BPH?
Benigne Protattic Hypertrophy.
Define a PE
A Pulmonary Embolism is an occlusion of a portion of the plumonary blood vessels by an embolus, which is a clot or other plug. They can be lethal. 355K/Diagnoses per year w/240K Deaths.
Define a VAE
Venous Air Emoblism. 3-8 ml can cause problems.
Define FES
Fat Embolism Syndrome. An embolism of fat that occurs after a frature, usually of one of th elong bones, ribs, or pelvis.
Define DVT
Deep Vein Thrombosis.
When are DVT's a problem.
When clients are immobile, especially after Hip replacement.
With Regard to Thrombophlebitis, what is Virchows Triad?
(1) Venous Stasis (2) Hypercoagulability (3) Injury to the venous wall. Two of the three must be present for thrombi to form.