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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
induction
from specifics to generalizations
deduction
from generalization to specifics
conditional argument
1st major premise (condition)
2nd minor premise (antecedent)
conclusion (consequent)
ad hominem
attacking the arguer rathan than the arguement
agrument from analogy
an unsound form of inductive arguement, in which two things of different sorts are asserted to have a number properties in common.
begging the question
a form of deductive argument in which the conclusion is already assumed as a premise.
example of circular or "tautology"
"We can believe what is said in the Bible, because it says it is the Word of God."
black or white fallacy
an unsound form of argument, in which it is held that there is no difference,or no stable difference, between two things.
cross-ranking
a fallacy of classification, using more than one basis of division in dividing a class into sub-classes.
distraction
turning the course of an argument or a dispute away from the point at issue.
red herring
when the distraction (emotion device) is effective.
tu quoque
form of distraction by reversing the charges instead of addressing them.
eqivocation
changing the sense of a word or phrase inthe course of an argument in sich a way as to make the reason offered appear more convincing than it really it.
far fetched hypothesis
a hypothesis that can be accepted on the support of a particular body of evidence can be explained by an alternative hypothesis that is simpler or more frequent.
hasty generalizations
a generalization accepted on the support of a sample that is either biased or too small to warrant it.
post hoc ergo proter hoc
another form of hasty generalization, in which the fact that one event followed another is cited to infer that it must be the effect of the other. (Rooster example)
inconsistency
a discourse is inconsistent or self contradictory if it contains explicity or implicity, two assertions that are logically incompatible with each other ("Enjoy the great outdoors in our air conditioned tour buses")
special pleading
special case of inconsistency which consists of appealing to a general statement in refuting another person's assertion, and than ignoring that startment in defending one's own.
non sequitur
an argument that simple does not follow. ("Raised in a poor neighborhood, I can't be expected to earn a living like everyone else")
oversimplification
excluding relevant considerations from an argument or dispute by means of an emotive device that makes it appear that the point at issue can be settled more easily than is really the case.
reduxio ad absurdum
a form of misrepresentation, in which what might be a reasonable statement is so exaggerated that it becomes ridiculous.
slanting
a form of misrepresentation in which a true statement is made, but in such a way as to suggest something that is not true.