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289 Cards in this Set

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The __________ is the central question asked by sociologists when they attempt to explain human behavior
influence of society on people
The idea of applying the scientific method to the social world is referred to as:
positivism
Sociologists emphasize the notion that our thinking and motivation are largely determined by:
influences drawn from our life experiences.
The success of the natural sciences, the rise of imperialism, the decline of traditional monarchy and __________ all contributed to the emergence of sociology.
the Industrial Revolution
Max Weber believed the central force in social change was:
religion
The sociologist who conducted extensive research on varying rates of suicide within a specific country and among different countries was:
Emile Durkheim.
Weber stressed the notion that sociological research should be "value free." This means that sociologists should NOT:
let personal values affect their research.
A general statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they work is defined as a:
theory
The underlying principle of symbolic interactionism is:
how one's behavior depends on the way they define themselves and others.
Viewing society as being composed of groups that engage in fierce competition for scarce resources is the underlying premise in:
conflict theory.
While the intended consequence of attending college is to obtain an education to prepare for entry into the job market, college also provides a "mate selection market" wherein students may meet prospective marriage partners. This market represents what Merton would describe as a:
latent function.
Of the following, which theoretical perspective in sociology least qualifies as an example of macro-level analysis?
symbolic interactionism
The first step in the scientific research method is:
selecting a topic.
Mark views society as a system of interrelated parts, while John views society as composed of groups competing for scarce resources. Mark would be considered a __________ theorist and John would be seen as a __________ theorist.
functionalist; conflict
Sergio is interested in how changes in society are related to homelessness. He is examining how the movement of factory jobs from the U.S. to overseas locations have contributed to the increase in the number of homeless. Sergio is conducting a __________ analysis.
macro level
In a random sample:
everyone in the population has the same chance of being included in the study.
A closed ended question is one that:
is followed by a list of possible answers that limit the respondent.
In secondary analysis, the researcher:
examines data that someone else has collected.
In experimental research, the group that receives some sort of therapy or treatment is referred to as the:
experimental group
Something that is chosen by the researcher to cause a change in another variable is referred to as the:
independent variable.
Jewelry, art, hairstyles and clothing each represent examples of:
material culture.
When sociologists refer to the culture within us, they are referring to:
the learned and shared ways of believing and doing that are a part of our behavior.
A tendency for an individual to use their own group's way of doing things as a yardstick for judging others is referred to as:
ethnocentrism
Which of the following statements is correct?
(a)It is natural for Americans to wear jeans and Arabs to wear robes.
b. It is natural for Americans to eat rice and Chinese to eat hot dogs.
c. It is natural for Mexicans to speak English.
d. There is nothing natural about human behavior.
d
Sociologists are encouraged to practice __________ to understand a people from the framework of the culture being studied.
cultural relativism
A feeling of disorientation one experiences when entering a new environment or situation that has a different value system than their own is referred to as:
culture shock.
Gestures, language, values and social norms are examples of:
non-material culture
Which of the following statements is least true about symbolic culture?
(a)Symbolic culture is another name for nonmaterial culture.
( b) A symbol is something to which people attach meaning and communicate.
(c) The central component of symbolic culture is the symbols that people use.
(d) Symbolic culture includes tools and the technology to use them
d
Jerzy, age 15, has recently moved to the U.S.A. from Poland and is making good progress in learning to speak American English. As his skill in learning English improves, he will:
begin to perceive the world differently.
Sociologists use the term __________ to indicate the standards by which people define their ideas about what is desirable in life.
values
Sociologists use the concept "norms" to describe __________.
the expectations, or rules of behavior that develop out of values
After having successfully negotiated an important business contract with a major client, Phil's boss congratulated him and promised him a significant pay raise. In this situation, Phil has received what sociologists call a:
positive sanction.
Jeffrey Dahmer was convicted of murder and sentenced to life imprisonment for this offense. He also practiced cannibalism on his victims. In this situation, the act of murder could be described as the violation of a __________ while cannibalism could be described as the violation of a __________.
more; taboo
In the month of December, many Jewish families celebrate Chanukah, the "festival of light," during which special foods are served and families engage in ritual activity unique to their religious faith. In this context, members of the Jewish faith would represent a:
subculture
Harold is an executive of the Harley-Davidson company. He is a member of the Free Wheelers, a motorcycle group. On weekends, the Free Wheelers go camping and fishing. Harold would be considered a member of a(n):
subculture
The American core value that pervades U.S. life and is underscored by the American revolution is:
freedom
Emerging technologies that have a significant impact on social life such as the emergence of computers, satellites, and the electronic media are referred to as:
new technology.
At a United Nations women's conference in Beijing, satellites instantly transmitted the grievances of women worldwide. As a consequence, norms governing gender relations between men and women were subject to change. This illustrates:
technology's influence on nonmaterial culture.
__________ is composed of language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and material objects.
Culture
After reading the case of Oskar and Jack, the two identical twins who were raised separately, we can conclude that the person we become is the result of __________.
both heredity and our social environment
Children raised in U.S. orphanages tend, on average, to have lower IQs than children raised at home. The hypothesized cause of this fact is:
the absence of nurturing social interaction.
Another term for nature is __________ while an alternative term for nurture is __________.
heredity; the social environment
According to Charles Horton Cooley, we develop a self-concept:
by interpreting how others think about us.
__________ is the term Charles Horton Cooley coined to describe the process by which we develop a sense of self.
Looking-glass self
According to George Herbert Mead, we acquire a sense of self __________.
when we learn to take the role of the other
Bob's football coach is a very important influence in his life. Many of Bob's actions are attempts to win the approval of his coach. Mead would suggest that the coach is one of Bob's __________.
significant others
While attending a movie, Sam continually talks out loud to his friends, makes loud and obnoxious noises and disregards the persons sitting nearby who are watching the film. Mead would suggest that Sam has a poorly developed sense of:
the generalized other.
Tony is five years of age. He loves to dress up like Batman and pretend to save Gotham City from the Penguin. According to Mead's theory, he is in the __________ stage.
play
Morris is 3 years of age and is just beginning to talk. He can count to 10 but is not altogether sure what numbers actually mean. According to Piaget, Morris is in the __________ stage.
preoccuptional
According to the Piaget model, the stage of development where a child's understanding is limited to direct contact with the environment, including touching, listening, and seeing is the __________ stage.
sensorimotor
In Freud's theory, the __________ represents the pleasure seeking aspect of our personality.
id
Psychologists, Susan Goldberg and Michael Lewis, observed the interactions of mothers and children to determine if the children were socialized differently, depending on the child's sex. They found that mothers __________.
unconsciously rewarded daughters for being dependent
The Smiths are going Christmas shopping for their two children, Dick and Jane. They plan to buy Dick a Tonka truck and Jane a Barbie doll. Their selection of toys for their children is an example of __________ by parents.
gender socialization
Forms of communication that are directed at large audiences such as television, movies, and video games are referred to as:
mass media
It is not uncommon for teachers, coaches and other persons associated with the enterprise of education to affect the self concepts, attitudes and behaviors of their students. To this extent, schools could be described as:
agents of socialization.
In his last semester of high school, Michael has received word that he has been accepted to State University. Soon he begins to dismiss high school activities as being "too high school," and begins to wear clothing styles and affect mannerisms that are characteristic of State University students. Michael is exhibiting signs of:
resocialization
__________ is the process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors.
resocilaztion
Which of the following would be the best example of a total institution?
a military boot camp
Fred has just joined a fraternity. As part of his initiation, he has been forced to strip naked and roll in a tub of mud. This is an example of what Harold Garfinkel termed __________.
a degradation ceremony
The two sociological perspectives that focus on the broader picture or the macrosociological approach, are:
conflict theory and functionalism.
Alan is a worker, a student and the quarterback on the football team. Sociologists would consider this his __________.
status set
Which of the following statements is least true of an ascribed status?
a. An ascribed status is involuntary.
b. Race, ethnicity, and social class at birth are example of ascribed status.
c. Ascribed statuses provide guidelines for how we are to act and feel.
d. Certain ascribed statuses can be chosen.
d
The primary difference between an ascribed status and an achieved status is:
Ascribed statuses are involuntary while achieved statuses are voluntary.
A contradiction or mismatch between statuses is referred to as status __________.
inconsistency
Being a son or daughter is your __________, but your parents' expectation that you show respect to them is your __________.
status; role
a(n) __________ consists of people who regularly interact with one another and, usually, share similar values, norms, and expectations.
group
The built-in expectations that guide behavior as being appropriate for a status are referred to as:
norms
Which statement is least true of social institutions?
Social institutions are the means that each society develops to meet its basic needs.
b. Social institutions shape our behavior.
c. As society becomes more industrialized, social institutions become less formal.
d. Family, religion, and politics are examples of social institutions.
c
People who share a culture and territory are referred to as a(n):
society
Which statement is least true of the hunting and gathering society?
a. The gatherers in the society do not plant, but only gather what food is available.
b. Hunting and gathering societies tend to be small.
c. Hunting and gathering societies are the most egalitarian of all societies.
d. Hunting and gathering societies were able to accumulate reasonable surpluses
d
The first social revolution occurred with the:
domestication of plants and animals
According to Durkheim, __________ refers to a shared consciousness that people experience as a result of performing the same or similar tasks.
mechanical solidarity
According to Durkheim, when a society increases in size, its division of labor becomes more specialized. People begin to depend on one another and become interdependent. This form of social cohesion he termed __________.
organic solidarity
A type of society that may have emerged in the mid-20th century that is based on an economy that centers on the application of genetics is called the:
bioeconomic society.
The Amish can be characterized as a __________ society.
Gemeinschaft
As a student, you learn that your mother is in the hospital and you feel obligated to visit her but you also have an important exam tomorrow which you must study for. In this situation, you are likely to experience:
role conflict.
You and two of your friends are taking the same class and have formed a study group to prepare for exams. As the course progresses, you discover that you tend to earn much higher exam grades than your two friends. You want to do well in the class but don't want to make your friends look bad. It is likely that you are experiencing:
role incompatibility.
Alice is getting ready for an interview with a potential employer. She has picked out a blazer and skirt and has had her hair done at the beauty shop. Alice is relying on her manner and her appearance to communicate to the employer that she would be an excellent employee. According to Goffman, Alice would be engaged in __________.
impression management
In dramaturgy, when two or more people work together to make certain a "performance" goes as planned, it is referred to as:
teamwork.
A group of strangers waiting for a bus at the corner of Poplar and Main Streets is an example of a(n) __________.
aggregate
A __________ is characterized by intimate, long-term, face-to-face association and cooperation.
primary group
Sarah works for the American Hair and Felt Corporation. This group is one of the __________ groups that Sarah may belong to.
secondary
Because secondary groups do not satisfy our human needs for intimate associations, these groups tend to __________.
break down into primary groups
Cody is a member of the L.A. Crips. The other gangs in his territory are the Bloods and the Satan's Slaves. Cody feels very antagonistic towards the Bloods and the Slaves. For Cody, these two rival gangs would be considered __________.
out-groups
Groups we use as standards to evaluate ourselves are termed __________ groups.
reference groups
Mark has been working at the Palisades Insurance Company for two years. During this time, he has attended all the company functions, joined one of the established churches in the community, and is a member of the Chamber of Commerce. His participation in these various groups and events is termed __________.
networking
With respect to group size, Georg Simmel noted that:
as small groups grow larger, they become more stable.
According to Simmel, which of the following groups is the most unstable?
dyad
In which of the following types of groups is coalition formation impossible?
dyads
Matt is the leader of a task force which is trying to determine whether there should be a change in student policies. He has held three group discussions and outlined the steps he feels are necessary to reach the goal. He allows the group to work at their own pace. After receiving recommendations from the task force members, he offered alternatives he felt should be made. Matt's style of leadership would be best described as:
democratic
Solomon Asch's experiment on group conformity demonstrated that:
because of group pressure, most people are willing to say things they know are not true.
Milgram's "teacher-learner" experiments demonstrated that:
a substantial number of people will inflict pain on others if ordered to do so by a person in a position of authority.
Samantha works in a place that is hierarchial is nature, has a division of labor, written rules, communications and records, and in which workers treat each other impersonally. Based on these characteristics we can conclude Samantha works in a(n) __________.
bureaucracy
George Ritzer maintains that the organizational features of the fast food industry have gradually seeped into many aspects of human social life. He describes this process as the:
McDonaldization of Society.
"Red Tape" is a term which refers to:
rules and procedures which may impede the purpose of an organization.
Cathy Jean works in a large organization and has begun to feel more like an object at work, and that no one in the organization cares about her as a person. This is an example of __________.
bureaucratic alienation
__________ consist of people who organize on the basis of mutual interest and usually of their free will.
Voluntary associations
Michel's term, "the iron law of oligarchy" refers to:
the domination of organizations by a small, self-perpetuating elite.
With respect to promotion, which of the following was identified by William Ouchi as a difference between Japanese and American corporations?
Japanese workers work together as a team and are promoted as a team.
Sociologists refer to a violation of rules or norms as:
deviance
Chagnon's visit to the Yanomamo tribe, where he observed tribe members appearing naked in public, using hallucinogenic drugs, and letting mucus hang from their noses, is a good example of __________.
the cultural relativity of deviance
A specific form of deviance that involves the violation of rules that have been written into law is called __________.
crime
Social control refers to:
formal and informal means to enforce group norms.
The fact that the norms of mate selection in Iraq can be defined as rape and child abuse in the state of Nebraska, illustrates the sociological fact that deviance:
is culturally relative.
Biological explanations for deviance focus on __________, inborn tendencies of individuals to commit deviant acts.
genetic predispositions
The theory of deviance illustrated by the Saints and the Roughnecks case study is __________.
labeling theory
The main idea of control theory is that most people have strong desires to be deviant, but two systems work against their motivation to deviate. These two systems are termed __________.
inner and outer controls
By focusing attention on the significance of the meanings that names and reputations have for people, labeling theory reflects the __________ perspective.
Symbolic Interactionist
Sometimes people become even more deviant in response to being labeled as deviant. This occurs because __________.
the label becomes a part of the person's self-concept
Emile Durkheim argued that deviance:
may be functional for society.
Merton's __________ theory is based on the idea that most people want to attain cultural goals, but not everyone has the legitimate means of achieving them.
strain
Josh needs to achieve a 4.0 grade point average to qualify for admission to graduate school. He fears that he will not pass the final exam in chemistry and has decided to sit next to Heather, the best student in the class, and copy her paper. According to Merton's theory and typologies, Max would be considered a(n) __________.
innovator
Cloward and Ohlin note that different __________ encourage different types of crimes.
optturonitny srtuctures
In terms of economic costs, __________ crimes are considerably higher than __________ crimes.
sreet;white color crimes
A major change in crime in the United States is the growing number of __________.
female offenders
A major change in crime in the United States is the growing number of __________.
female offenders
The passage of "three strikes and you're out" laws has, in some cases, resulted in mandatory life imprisonment sentences for relatively minor offenses. Such outcomes illustrate what functional theorists describe as:
unintended consequences.
Most of the persons who are imprisoned in the United States are:
repeat offenders
The "three strikes and you're out" laws were most effective at __________.
illustrating America's "get tough" policy against crime and criminals
Social __________ is the division of large numbers of people into layers according to their relative power, property, and prestige.
strafication
Social position in the caste system is based on __________.
ascribed status
India's caste system was based on __________.
religion
The practice of __________ insists that people marry within their own group.
endagomy
A significant difference among the class system and the systems of slavery and caste is that the class system has relatively __________ boundaries.
fluid
For Marx, ownership of __________ was the primary factor which distinguished the different classes under industrial capitalism.
means of producation
If a person were living during Karl Marx's lifetime and worked at the Smittertown ironworks, Marx would consider that person a member of the __________.
proletariat
Karl Marx would argue that workers experience __________ when they mistakenly identify with the capitalists.
false consciousness
Sally is employed as a computer programmer for the Ellis Corporation. She has a savings account of $15,000 and owns a few shares of Ellis stock. She thinks of herself as an investor rather than as a worker. Marx would maintain that Sally has __________.
false consciousness
According to Weber, social class is actually made up of three components; __________.
property, power, and prestiage
__________ concluded that the universality of stratification can be explained by the necessity to motivate the most qualified people to fill the more important and demanding positions in a society.
Kingsley Davis and Wilbert Moore
According to Melvin Tumin, the best predictor of college entrance is __________.
the family income of the student
The modification of conflict theory by Mills, Dahrendorf, Collins, and Schellenberg emphasized that:
groups within the same class, including the proletariat, compete for scarce resources.
With the introduction of the new technology of satellite communications, e-mail, and the Internet, the technique of controlling __________ is less effective for maintaining positions of power by the elites.
socail networks
In Brazil, because poverty is so extensive in the Brazilian slums, one solution that is being used is to __________.
organize death squads to murder poor children
In the three world model, First World nations usually have a __________ economy while Second World nations have a __________ economy.
capitalist; socialist
The extensive movement of capital and ideas among the nations of the world is described as the process of:
globalization
The theory of __________ focuses on how the countries that industrialized first got the jump on the rest of the world because of their more advanced economic systems.
colonialism
The practice by industrialized nations of controlling the Least Industrialized Nations through debts owed to the Most Industrialized Nations is referred to as __________.
neocolonialism
Multinational corporations have helped __________ simply by doing business.
to maintain the international stratification system
__________ is the systematic annihilation or attempted annihilation of a people based on their presumed race or ethnicity.
Genocide
While race might reflect our biological heritage, __________ reflects our cultural heritage.
ethnicity
Louis Wirth defined __________ groups as people who are singled out for unequal treatment and who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination.
minority
George is a clerk in a hardware store. When an African American comes into the store, George follows him closely because he believes that African Americans will steal his merchandise. This is an example of:
prejudice
Prejudice describes __________ while discrimination describes __________.
attitudes; actions
Sam, a bartender who saw duty in Vietnam, refuses to serve Asians in his bar because he believes that Asians have no business living in the U.S.A. Sam's actions describe:
prejudice and discrimination.
Which statement is least true of prejudice and discrimination?
Prejudice and discrimination are common throughout the world.
b. When the basis of discrimination is race, it is known as racism.
c. Older and less educated whites are more prejudiced than younger and more educated whites.
d. Research shows individuals with group membership, such as members of fraternities and sororities, are less prejudice than independents
d
Juan, an Hispanic, and Harold, a white male, have each applied for a home mortgage at the local bank. Juan's loan was turned down while Harold's loan was given to him. In comparing their credit history, both men had good credit, and their debts and income were comparable. This is an example of __________ against Juan.
institutional discrimination
John recently received his semester grades and found that he had failed two courses. He says the reason he failed the two courses is that they were taught by female professors and everyone knows that women are really not smart enough to teach at the college level. In this example, the female professors are __________.
scapegoats and being blamed for John's grades
__________ is often based on the use of labels which cause people to look at members of a group as though they were all alike.
Selective perception
One strategy of intergroup relations involves separating minority groups from dominant groups so that minimal contact occurs between them. This practice is known as:
segregation
Slavery is a form of:
internal colonialism.
Switzerland is made up of three separate ethnic groups which have kept their own languages but are peacefully united politically and economically. This pattern of intergroup relations is an example of __________.
multiculturalism
A form of internal colonialism practiced in South Africa in which the dominant Afrikaaners exploited the minority group was called:
apartheid
The terms Latino and Hispanic refer to a(n) __________ group.
ethnic
The 2000 Census revealed that __________ are the largest minority group in the United States.
Asian Americans
Which statement is least true of Asian Americans?
The Foreign Miners Act, passed in 1850, was an act of discrimination against Chinese workers.
b. The three largest groups of Asian Americans are the Chinese, Filipino, and Japanese.
c. Asian Americans have a high degree of self discipline and college graduation.
d. Asian Americans are endogamous and marry within their own race more than any other minority
d
Rosa is a young, female Puerto Rican; Leon is a young, male African American; Yoko is a young, female Japanese American; and Joseph is a young, male Native American. Which individual is most likely to enter into an interracial marriage?
Yoko
__________ Americans are often referred to as the invisible minority.
Native
Of all the minority groups in the United States, __________ are the worst off in terms of poverty, life expectancy, suicide and alcoholism.
Native Americans
The unequal access to power, prestige, and property based on a person's sex defines:
gender stratification.
While the notion of sex refers to biological characteristics, the concept of gender refers to __________ characteristics.
social
Most sociologists believe that gender differences in behavior between men and women are, for the most part:
learned
Female circumcision is a custom in some societies. Feminists believe that this practice is:
a form of ritual torture to control female sexuality.
Sociologists classify women as a __________ because each society has set up barriers that prevent women from gaining equal access to power, property and prestige.
minority group
Even today, patriarchy continues to exist because of the __________ that justifies male dominance.
culture support
Jody is a feminist who feels hostility towards all men and feels they ignore the "real" needs of women today. Jody is representative of the __________ faction of the women's movement.
conservative
Recently a search of hospital records revealed that women were more likely than men to die from coronary bypass surgery. When researchers looked for an answer, they found that these differing rates in death from this surgery were caused by __________.
unintentional sexual discrimination
The fact that 80 percent of engineering degrees are awarded to men while nearly 90 percent of library science degrees are awarded to women illustrates the phenomenon of:
gender tracking.
Leticia has worked for ten years in the public relations department of a large firm. She has not been promoted to any executive position in her firm even though she has directed several successful projects for the firm. Her lack of promotion illustrates __________.
"the glass ceiling"
A comparative analysis of the Tiwi and the Abkhasians illustrate that the meanings that people attach to aging:
are socially constructed
A person has a greater chance of reaching old age if he/she __________.
lives in the most Industrialized nation
Which statement is least true of the aging American population?
a. The number of years people can expect to live has increased about 30 years since 1900.
b. Today, approximately 13 percent of the U.S. population is over 65.
c. Americans rank number one in life expectancy among nations of the wold.
d. There are 9 million more elderly people than teenagers in the United States today.
c
__________ theorists focus on how the symbols associated with age affect our perceptions of when a person becomes old.
Symbolic interactionist
__________ refers to prejudice, discrimination, and hostility directed against people because of their age.
Ageism
Some theorists believe that the social value of the elderly in the United States __________.
decreased with industrialization
A "baby boom" generation and a "baby bust" generation would each be considered __________.
age cohorts
As the "baby boom" generation reaches retirement age, we can expect that __________.
many jobs will open at roughly the same time
__________ theorists argue that the Social Security retirement benefits that the elderly receive are the result of a struggle between competing interest groups.
Conflict
The theory of aging that equates happiness to the amount and quality of program participation the elderly engage in falls under the classification of:
activities theory.
Power is defined as:
the ability to exercise one's will over others.
Of the following situations, which would be an example of authority?
a playground bully making a person get off the swings
b. a person insisting that his/her friend attend a particular movie
c. a teacher requiring a research paper in his/her class
d. a mugger who shoves a gun in a person's back and demands his/her money
c
Gertrude has misbehaved and her parents have told Gertrude she will not be allowed to go outside and play for two days. Their authority to restrict Gertrude to the house is based on __________.
tradition
Which of the following best describes rational-legal authority?
rules written by laws
John F. Kennedy had a combination of ideal types of leadership. Although he was the President of the United States, he also inspired people to get involved with their country's programs simply because they were Americans. President Kennedy is an example of combining __________ authority.
charismatic and traditional
Early city-states were headed by a king or queen. This form of government is known as a(n) __________.
monarchy
__________ refers to a system of government in which decision making is vested in a small group of people.
Oligarchy
In the United States, we elect candidates whom we believe will best represent our interests in our state capitals and in Washington, D.C. This is an example of:
representative democracy.
Of the following individuals, which one is most likely to be the most consistent voter in the United States?
Answer Choices
a. Moe is a 52 year old white non Hispanic who works as a senior research chemist.
b. Jessica is 24 and heads the "Students for Peace" movement at the local community college.
c. Antonio, a 48 year old Mexican immigrant working as a landscaper, just received his citizenship papers.
d. Maria is a 26 year old who just received her Ph.D. from Harvard.
a
The notion that people who have a stake in the system are more likely to vote underscores the importance of what Durkheim described as:
social intergration
According to C. Wright Mills, the important decisions in the United States are made by the __________.
power elite
Sociologists use the concept "__________" to refer to the structure and process of market activity in any society.
economy
Hunting and gathering societies which generate very little surplus food and material property are described by sociologists as __________ economies.
subsistence
As industrialization created a greater and greater surplus in the U.S., people began to emphasize the __________.
consumption of goods rather than production of goods
The elaborate consumption of material goods was described by Thorstein Veblen as:
conspicuous consumption.
Which of the following is not a characteristic of postindustrial societies?
a. The manufacturing sector employs most of the people in society.
b. the "explosion" of information
c. a vast surplus of goods available for consumption
d. extensive trade among nations of the world
a
__________ capitalism only exists in a society when market forces are able to operate without government interference.
Laissez-faire
Which statement is least true of the capitalist economy?
. The means of production are in the hands of private owners.
b. Market competition involves an exchange of items between willing buyers and sellers.
c. The goal of the system is to sell something for more than it costs to produce.
d. There is central planning to determine what to produce and who can do it best.
d.
__________ is designed to eliminate competition by selling goods at predetermined prices regardless of the demand for the product, or the cost to make it.
Socialism
A primary criticism leveled against capitalism is that it:
leads to severe social inequalities.
Two or more people who consider themselves related by blood, marriage, or adoption constitute a(n) __________.
family
Celia lives in a society in which children are related to their mother's relatives, but not their father's relatives. This system of descent is termed __________ descent.
matrilineal
The amount of work women put in after they get home from working eight hours a day for wages was described by Hochschild as the working wife's "__________."
decrease his share
If a husband gets laid off from work, he is most likely to __________ of the housework.
decrease his share
In India, about 95 percent of the marriages are arranged by the parents; in the United States, most marriages are based on individual choice. These differences in marriage practices support the sociological principle that __________.
a society's marriage practices match societal values
In the United States, the choice of a marriage partner tends to be __________.
influenced by age, education, class, race and religion
Maria and Brian recently gave birth to their first child. Based on sociological findings, it is likely that the marital satisfaction that Maria feels will __________.
decrease
With respect to social class and the arrival of the first child, which of the following statements is most accurate?
a. Working class couples tend to have children later than middle class couples.
b. Middle class couples tend to have more difficulty adjusting to the arrival of a child than do working class couples.
c. Working class couples tend to have children earlier than middle class couples.
d. Working class couples tend to have fewer children than middle class couples
c
According to sociologist Lillian Rubin, the empty nest experienced by women when the last child leaves home is __________.
a myth as satisfaction generally increased
The concept of "marriage squeeze" refers to:
an imbalance in the sex ratiohorizontale.g., fewer unmarried men than unmarried women.
Kim is the child of Asian American parents. When she misbehaves, her parents are more likely to discipline her by __________.
using shame and guilt to control her behavior
Which of the following women is less likely to have children?
Mary, a high-school drop-out
b. Cindy, a high school graduate
c. Latishia, a college graduate
d. Kelly, a graduate of medical school
d
Sociologists Blumstein and Schwartz found in their study same-sex couples faced the same problems that heterosexual couples did but they were __________.
more likely to break up
One of the most significant trends in U.S. marriages is that the average first-time bride and groom is __________ than at any time in U.S. history.
older
The findings from cross-cultural research on the rates of births to unmarried mothers in ten industrialized nations indicate that there have been sharp increases in births to unmarried mothers in all the countries, except in __________.
Japan
Edgar and Jayne are a couple in their 40s. They are busy raising a family of three children. They also spend considerable time each week at their parents' homes doing yard maintenance and running errands for their parents. Edgar and Jayne are members of the __________ generation.
sandwich
Which statement is least true of divorce?
. Divorce is more likely to cause economic hardship for the woman than the man.
b. The higher a woman's level of education, the better prepared she is to survive financially after divorce.
c. Women are more likely than men to feel that divorce is giving them a "new chance."
d. The person who initiates the divorce is more likely to suffer from guilt and anxiety over it longer.
d
When it comes to injuries incurred during battering:
gender equality vanishes with more wives than husbands requiring medical attention.
From a __________ perspective, we create our own worlds. This implies that to have a good marriage, it is essential for people to perceive that a good marriage is possible and worth working toward achieving.
symbolic interactionist
Which of the following trends is less likely to occur in respect to marriage?

a. Cohabitation is likely to increase.
b. Births to single women are likely to decrease.
c. The age of first marriages will increase.
d. More married women will join the work force.
b
A central sociological principle of education is that a nation's education __________.
is a reflection of its culture
Yoko attends grade school in Japan. In all of her classes, her teachers stress __________.
cooperation and respect for elders
Industrialized nations have become __________ societies and employers use diplomas and degrees to determine who is eligible for jobs, even through the diploma or degree may be irrelevant to the actual work.
credintial
According to conflict theorists, the hidden curriculum perpetuates __________.
social inequalities
According to conflict theorists the educational system reproduces divisions of race and ethnicity in the United States. This example, illustrates that the major purpose of the educational system is to
reproduce enquality
Paul began kindergarten in the fall. On the eighth day of class, Paul was assigned to the "slow learner" group and placed at a table in the back of the room. Based on Rist's research, it is likely that placing Paul in this group will result in __________.
sel-filling prophecy
In the United States today one-third of all entering college freshmen have an overall high school grade-point average of A- or higher, twice what it was in 1970. The reason for this increase in students with high grades is that __________.
teachers have inflated grades
In contrast to the natural elements of every day life, Durkheim described the supernatural aspects of life as being:
sacred
Paul began kindergarten in the fall. On the eighth day of class, Paul was assigned to the "slow learner" group and placed at a table in the back of the room. Based on Rist's research, it is likely that placing Paul in this group will result in __________.
Paul becoming withdrawn and quiet
According to Durkheim, __________ is a set of beliefs and practices related to sacred things that unite people into a moral community.
religion
Next week Abraham and Hazel will attend the bar mitzvah of their nephew. Their nephew's bar mitzvah is an example of a religious __________.
ritual
In recent years we have witnessed Protestants and Catholics killing each other in Northern Ireland, Jews and Muslims engaged in conflict, as well as Christians and Muslims in Bosnia doing the same thing. These wars would be considered a __________ by functionalists.
dysfunction of religion
Rituals are repetitive practices that help to unite people into a moral community. An example of a ritual would be __________.
praying before meals
Durkheim termed the common elements of everyday life the __________.
profane
Marx's notion that religion diverts the thoughts of workers to the afterlife rather than toward rebellion against their worldly oppressors is expressed by his statement:
"Religion is ... the opium of the people."
Religion has often been used to justify denying homosexuals certain rights in the United States. Conflict theorists would argue that this illustrates that religion __________.
is used to legitimate social inequality
__________ believed that the key to the modernization of traditional societies into industrial societies was religion.
Max Weber
The __________ is Weber's term to describe the ideal of a self-denying, highly moral life, accompanied by hard work and frugality.
Protestant Ethic
Sunday morning between ten and eleven has been called "the most segregated hour in the United States." The reason for this segregation is that people __________.
tend to join churches connected to their race/ethnicity
Secularization refers to the process:
by which spiritual concerns are replaced by worldly concerns.
Demography is the study of the size composition, growth, and distribution of __________.
human pop
The idea that population grows geometrically and the food supply only increases arithmetically, which will eventually lead to mass starvation throughout the world, is known as the __________.
Malthus theorem
Renee lives in a country that has high birth rates and high death rates. Her country would be in the __________ stage of the demographic transition.
second
A "population explosion" describes a country that is experiencing, __________.
high birth rates and low death rates
In regard to the debate about projected population trends in the future between the New Malthusians and the Anti-Malthusians, we can conclude that __________.
only the future will prove the accuracy of either projection
If a demographer wanted to compare the United States population by age and sex with that of Mexico, he or she would use the __________ to illustrate the population dynamics between these two countries.
population pyramid
Which statement is least true of the Basic Demographic Equation?
a. It takes into account the number of live births per 1,000 in a region.
b. It takes into account the number of deaths per 1,000 in a region.
c. It takes into account government programs, such as infanticide in China and bonuses paid for babies in Nazi Germany.
d. It takes into account the number of people emigrating as well as immigrating in a region
c
Which statement is most true regarding the impact of immigration of the U.S. economy.
a. Sociologists generally agree that immigration is a boost to a nation's economy.
b. Economists generally agree that immigration is a detriment to a nation's economy.
c. The benefit or detriment of immigration depends upon where the immigrants are from.
d. The benefit or detriment of immigration is directly related to the educational level of the immigrants.
D
To determine a country's __________ rate, a demographer would use the fertility, mortality, and migration rates.
growth
Janice has been asked to figure out the growth rate for last year for the United States. To accomplish this, Janice will use the basic demographic equation. This simple equation reads as follows __________.
births - deaths + net migration
Generally, around the globe there are 105 boys born for every 100 girls. However, recently in some countries, this ratio has been altered with a much larger proportion of boys being born in some countries. The primary reason for this shift to a higher proportion of male births has been __________.
the practice of female infanticide
Urbanization is the process by which an increasing proportion of a population lives in/or on __________.
cities
From the following, pick the best example of a megalopolis.
coastal area between San Francisco and San Diego
The __________ model views the city as a series of somewhat circular zones occurring outward from its center.
concentric zone
Most of the world's largest cities are now located in the Least Industrialized Nations. One difference in the urbanization process in these nations compared to the more industrialized nations is that urbanization has __________.
preceded industrialization
According to sociologist Louis Wirth, the city undermines the traditional sources of social control and social solidarity. The result is that the city provides personal freedom, but at the cost of alienation because __________.
people's interaction become superficial encounters
David is a musician and has moved to the city because of its conveniences and cultural events. According to Gans' categories of urban dwellers, David would be referred to as a(n) __________.
cosmopolite
The diffusion of responsibility can best be defined by which of the following?
The more bystanders there are, the less likely the people are to help.
A central city that is surrounded by smaller cities and suburbs is referred to as a __________.
megalopolis
According to sociologist William Wilson, __________ has transformed the inner cities into ghettos.
suburbanization
If a large group of people organize to promote or resist social change, they are involved in a __________.
social movement
A reactive social movement, refers to:
people who are organized to resist social change
The target of a redemptive social movement is the __________, and the goal is __________.
individual; to change the entire person
Who plays a crucial role in social movements as they act as the gatekeepers of information regarding it?
the mass media
According to sociologists, social movements go through stages as they grow and mature. Of these stages, the crucial stage that enables social movements to become more stable and continue is the __________ stage.
resource mobilization
The shift in the characteristics of culture and societies over time is referred to as __________.
social change
According to __________, the social invention called capitalism resulted in antagonism between capitalists and workers.
Karl Marx
Geopolitics is the realignment of national-regional powers that occurred after __________.
World War II
According to historian Arnold Toynbee, all civilizations __________.
reach a peak and then decline and die
__________ refers to a combining of existing elements and materials to form new ones.
invention
A new way of seeing reality is a(n) __________.
discovery
The new birth technologies have raised a number of legal questions in the U.S. about the rights of natural and adoptive parents. These unresolved questions are an example of __________.
cultural lag
__________ refers to tools as simple as a comb and those as complicated as a computer.
Technology
In the northeast United States, some lakes which were once considered "good" fishing spots no longer have fish living in them. The reason fish cannot survive in these lakes is because:
the burning of fossil fuels has created acid rain
The burning of fossil fuels allow sunlight to enter the earth's atmosphere freely, but inhibit the release of heat. This is referred to as __________.
the greenhouse effect
Some scientists believe that __________ may cause the polar ice caps to melt resulting in the climate boundaries to move about 400 miles north and make many animal and plant species extinct.
global warming
The likelihood of being exposed to air pollution, hazardous waste, and pesticides is greater if the person __________.
is a racial minority and/or is poor
With the rain forests disappearing rapidly, it is believed that __________.
ten thousand plant and animal species are lost annually
The goal of environmental sociology is to __________.
understand the interrelationship between societies and the environment
Industrialization can enhance people's quality of life, if we __________.
control industrialization's effect on the natural world
A new way of seeing reality is a(n) __________.
discovery
The new birth technologies have raised a number of legal questions in the U.S. about the rights of natural and adoptive parents. These unresolved questions are an example of __________.
cultural lag
__________ refers to tools as simple as a comb and those as complicated as a computer.
Technology
In the northeast United States, some lakes which were once considered "good" fishing spots no longer have fish living in them. The reason fish cannot survive in these lakes is because:
the burning of fossil fuels has created acid rain
The burning of fossil fuels allow sunlight to enter the earth's atmosphere freely, but inhibit the release of heat. This is referred to as __________.
the greenhouse effect
Some scientists believe that __________ may cause the polar ice caps to melt resulting in the climate boundaries to move about 400 miles north and make many animal and plant species extinct.
global warming
The likelihood of being exposed to air pollution, hazardous waste, and pesticides is greater if the person __________.
is a racial minority and/or is poor
With the rain forests disappearing rapidly, it is believed that __________.
ten thousand plant and animal species are lost annually
The goal of environmental sociology is to __________.
understand the interrelationship between societies and the environment
Industrialization can enhance people's quality of life, if we __________.
control industrialization's effect on the natural world