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78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a system of knowledge and the methods you use to find that knowledge
science
the use of knowledge to solve practical problems
technology
the study of composition, structure, properties, and reactions of matter
chemistry
the study of matter and energy and the interactions between the two through forces and motion
physics
a wel tested explanation for a set of observatios or experimental rules
theory
proposed answer to a question
hypothesis
An organized plan for gathering, organizing, and communicating information
scientific method
The variable that causes a change in the other
manipulated variable
the variable that changes in response to the manipulated variable
responding variable
an experiment in which the manipulated variable is deliberately changed at a time.
controlled experiment
a statement that summarizes a pattern found in nature
scientific law
a representation of an object or an event
model
a way of expressing a value as a product of a number between 1 and 10 and a power of 10.
scientific notation
the straight line distance between two points (m)
length
the quantity of matter in an object or sample (kg)
mass
the amt. of space taken up by an object
volume
the ratio of an object's mass to is volume (Mass over Volume)
density
a revised version of the metric system
SI
all the digits that are known in a measurement plus the last digit that is estimated
significant figures
a ratio of equivalent measurements that is used to convert a quantity expressed in one unit to another unit
conversion factor
the closeness of a measurement to the actual value of what is being measured
accuracy
an instrument that measures temperature, or how hot an object is
thermometer
steepness of a line - ratio of a vertical change to the corresp. horizontal change (Rise over run)
slope
a relationship in which the ratio of two variables is constant.
direct proportion
branches of science
three general: Physical, earth and space, and life.

chemistry physics = physical science & chemistry

geology & astronomy = earth & space sciences

biology = life science
the smallest particle of an element
atom
a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
element
a substance made from two or more simpler substances and can be broken down into those simpler substances
compound
matter that always has exactly the same composition
pure substance
substances are so evenly distributed that it is difficult to distinguish one substance in the mixture from another
homogeneous mixture
the parts of the mixture are noticeably different from one another
heterogeneous mixture
property can vary because the composition is not fixed
mixture
when substances dissolve and form a homogeneous mixture
solution
a heterogeneous mixture that seperates into layers over time
suspension
contains some particles that are intermediate in size & do not seperate into layers.
colloid
any characteristic of a material that can be observed or measured without changing the composition of the substances in the material.
physical property
the tendency of a liquid to keep from flowing
viscosity
A materials ability to allow heat to flow
conductivity
the ability of a solid to be hammered without shattering
malleability
to be drawn into thin wires
ductile
the temp. at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid
melting point
the temperature at which a substance boils
boiling point
process that seperates materials based on the size of their particles
filtration
process that seperates the substances in a solution based on their boiling points
distillation
occurs when some of the properties of a material change
physical change
any ability to produce change in the composition of matter
chemical property
a material's ability to burn in the prescence of oxygen.
flammability
how readily a substance combines chemically with another
reactivity
occurs when a substance reacts and forms one or two more substances
chemical change
any solid that forms and seperates from a liquid mixture
precipitate
that which has mass and occupies space
matter
state of matter in which materials have a definite shape and a definite volume
solid
state of matter in whic a material has a definite olume but not a definite shape
liquid
state of matter in which a material has neither a definite shape nor a definite volume
gas
the energy an object has due to its motion
kinetic energy
the result of a force distributed over an area
pressure
a temperature of 0 K
absolute zero
state of matter in which atoms have been stripped of their electrons
plasma
the volume of a gas is directly porportional to its temperature in kelvins if the pressure and number of particles of gas are constant
Charles' law
the volume of a gas is inversely porportional to its pressure if they temperature and the number of particles are constant
Boyle's law
reversible physical change that occurs when a substance changes from one state of matter to another
phase change
absorbs energy from its surroundings
endothermic
realeases energy to its surroundings
exothermic
amount of energy it takes for something to melt (Joules)
heat of fusion
the phase change in which a substance changes from a liquid into a gas
vaporization
the processt that changes a substance from a liquid to a gas at temperatures below the substance's boiling point.
evaporation
pressure caused by collisions and walls
vapor pressure
phase change in which a substance changes from a gas or vapor to a liquid.
condensation
phase change in which a substance changes from a solid to a gas or vapor without changing to a liquid first.
sublimation
when a gas or vapor changes directly into a solid without first changing to a liquid
deposition
a row in a periodic table of elements
period
a positively charged subatomic particle that is found in the nucleus of an atom
proton
negatively charged subatomic particle that is found in the space outside the nucleus of an atom
electron
a neutral subatomic particle that is found in the nucleus of an atom
neutron
a unique number for each element that equals the number of protons in an atom of that element
atomic number
the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
mass number
atoms of a given element that have different numbers of neutrons and different mass numbers
isotopes
the possible energies that electrons in an atom can have
energy levels