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### 78 Cards in this Set

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 a system of knowledge and the methods you use to find that knowledge science the use of knowledge to solve practical problems technology the study of composition, structure, properties, and reactions of matter chemistry the study of matter and energy and the interactions between the two through forces and motion physics a wel tested explanation for a set of observatios or experimental rules theory proposed answer to a question hypothesis An organized plan for gathering, organizing, and communicating information scientific method The variable that causes a change in the other manipulated variable the variable that changes in response to the manipulated variable responding variable an experiment in which the manipulated variable is deliberately changed at a time. controlled experiment a statement that summarizes a pattern found in nature scientific law a representation of an object or an event model a way of expressing a value as a product of a number between 1 and 10 and a power of 10. scientific notation the straight line distance between two points (m) length the quantity of matter in an object or sample (kg) mass the amt. of space taken up by an object volume the ratio of an object's mass to is volume (Mass over Volume) density a revised version of the metric system SI all the digits that are known in a measurement plus the last digit that is estimated significant figures a ratio of equivalent measurements that is used to convert a quantity expressed in one unit to another unit conversion factor the closeness of a measurement to the actual value of what is being measured accuracy an instrument that measures temperature, or how hot an object is thermometer steepness of a line - ratio of a vertical change to the corresp. horizontal change (Rise over run) slope a relationship in which the ratio of two variables is constant. direct proportion branches of science three general: Physical, earth and space, and life. chemistry physics = physical science & chemistry geology & astronomy = earth & space sciences biology = life science the smallest particle of an element atom a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances element a substance made from two or more simpler substances and can be broken down into those simpler substances compound matter that always has exactly the same composition pure substance substances are so evenly distributed that it is difficult to distinguish one substance in the mixture from another homogeneous mixture the parts of the mixture are noticeably different from one another heterogeneous mixture property can vary because the composition is not fixed mixture when substances dissolve and form a homogeneous mixture solution a heterogeneous mixture that seperates into layers over time suspension contains some particles that are intermediate in size & do not seperate into layers. colloid any characteristic of a material that can be observed or measured without changing the composition of the substances in the material. physical property the tendency of a liquid to keep from flowing viscosity A materials ability to allow heat to flow conductivity the ability of a solid to be hammered without shattering malleability to be drawn into thin wires ductile the temp. at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid melting point the temperature at which a substance boils boiling point process that seperates materials based on the size of their particles filtration process that seperates the substances in a solution based on their boiling points distillation occurs when some of the properties of a material change physical change any ability to produce change in the composition of matter chemical property a material's ability to burn in the prescence of oxygen. flammability how readily a substance combines chemically with another reactivity occurs when a substance reacts and forms one or two more substances chemical change any solid that forms and seperates from a liquid mixture precipitate that which has mass and occupies space matter state of matter in which materials have a definite shape and a definite volume solid state of matter in whic a material has a definite olume but not a definite shape liquid state of matter in which a material has neither a definite shape nor a definite volume gas the energy an object has due to its motion kinetic energy the result of a force distributed over an area pressure a temperature of 0 K absolute zero state of matter in which atoms have been stripped of their electrons plasma the volume of a gas is directly porportional to its temperature in kelvins if the pressure and number of particles of gas are constant Charles' law the volume of a gas is inversely porportional to its pressure if they temperature and the number of particles are constant Boyle's law reversible physical change that occurs when a substance changes from one state of matter to another phase change absorbs energy from its surroundings endothermic realeases energy to its surroundings exothermic amount of energy it takes for something to melt (Joules) heat of fusion the phase change in which a substance changes from a liquid into a gas vaporization the processt that changes a substance from a liquid to a gas at temperatures below the substance's boiling point. evaporation pressure caused by collisions and walls vapor pressure phase change in which a substance changes from a gas or vapor to a liquid. condensation phase change in which a substance changes from a solid to a gas or vapor without changing to a liquid first. sublimation when a gas or vapor changes directly into a solid without first changing to a liquid deposition a row in a periodic table of elements period a positively charged subatomic particle that is found in the nucleus of an atom proton negatively charged subatomic particle that is found in the space outside the nucleus of an atom electron a neutral subatomic particle that is found in the nucleus of an atom neutron a unique number for each element that equals the number of protons in an atom of that element atomic number the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom mass number atoms of a given element that have different numbers of neutrons and different mass numbers isotopes the possible energies that electrons in an atom can have energy levels