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52 Cards in this Set

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List at least five ways the ocean is important to us.
1. food
2. minerals
3. energy
4. transportation
5. recreation
Describe how the oceans were originally formed
Volcanoes erupted and spewed ashes and water vapor. The vapor condensed and formed clouds. Torrential rains fell, collecting in basins that formed oceans.
What is an ion?
An ion is a charged atom or group of atoms.
What ions are found in the ocean?
dissolved salts and minerals are ions. calcium potassium
magnesium sulfate
sodium chloride
What ions do erupting volcanoes add to ocean water?
bromide and chloride
Explain how dissolved ions get into ocean water
Rocks dissolved by rivers that feed into oceans
Erupting volcanoes also deposit bromide and chloride
Describe in detail the composition of ocean water.
The most abundant elements are hydrogen and oxygen. They make up 96.5 percent. Another 3.5 percent is dissolved salts. The most common ions (dissolved salts) are chloride (55%) and sodium (31 %)
Explain how the salinity of the ocean has changed since it was form
The salinity has stayed nearly constant for hundreds of millions of years
How are elements removed from ocean water?
Elements are added at the same rate they are removed.
1. precipitate out of water and become sediment
2. some organisms used dissolved salts to make body parts
3. some use calcium ions to form bones/shells
4. these elements are removed faster than chlorine and sodium
What is desalination?
Desalination is the removal of salt from ocean water. one method is evaporating sea water and collecting fresh water as it condenses on glass roofs. 2. sea water passes through membrane that removes salts 3. freezing salt water so salt falls out
why is desalination important to us?
It's important because we need freshwater. There is a limited amount of freshwater on the earth but virtually unlimited amounts of ocean water
What causes ocean currents?
1. surface currents are caused by wind
2. density currents are caused by changes in density
Explain the Coriolis effect.
Coriolis effect is the shifting of winds and surface currents from their expected path caused by earth's rotation.
How does the Coriolis effect surface currents?
In the Northern Hemisphere the Coriolis effect causes surfaces currents to curve to the right. In the Southern Hemisphere the currents curve to the left
Can you label a map of the topography of the ocean floor?
YES or NO (circle one)
What is the Gulf stream?
The Gulf Stream is a 100 KM wide current that goes from North America to England.
What effect does the Gulf Stream have on sailing ships?
Carries ships more quickly from North America to England. Going against the Gulf Stream delayed ships sailing West from England by 110 km a day.
What is a drift bottle?
Bottles are released into the ocean in various locations. A note contained in the bottle shows where it came from. The person who finds the bottle writes the date and location, sending card back to institution that launched it, helping them collect valuable information.
Name two different surface currents that affect the coast u.s. explain how these current affect climate..
currents on the west coast of continents, like the california currents, begin near the poles where the water is colder. East coast currents originate near the equator where the water is warmer. As warm water flows away from the equator heat is released into the atmosphere.
Explain the process of upwellinjg.
A vertical circulation in the ocean that brings cold deep water to the surface.This occurs because the coriolois effect causes the wind to blow surface currents away from the land, and the water below moves up.
Why is upwellilng important to humans?
Cold deep water moves to the surface replacing water that moved away. The deep water is rich with nutrients that produce plant and plnakton growth. This attracts fish. Areas of upwelling create important fishing grounds.
Where is upwelling common?
Upwelling is common in Oregon, Washington and Peru.
Explain the cause and result of El Nino ?
El Nino is when there is not enough upwelling and the ocean water warms too much, changing global weather causing floods or droughts.
Explain the cause and result of La Nina ?
La Nina is when there is too much upwelling and the ocean becomes too cold and causes extreme weather patterns.
What causes density currents?
Density currents form when a mass of sea water becomes more dense than surrounding water. Water gets more dense if it gets colder or more salty. Density currents circulate ocean water slowly
Why are they important?
An important density current begins in Antarctica. Sea water freezes but salt is left behind and increases salinity and the density of the water. The dense water sinks and spreads slowly on the bottom toward the equator. The water could take 1000 years to reach the equator.
What are the North Atlantic Deep Waters?
North Atlantic deepwater forms the bottom layer of ocean water. Cold dense water around Greenland, Norway and Labrador. !/3 to 1/2 of Atlantic north atlantic deepwater form bottom layer of ocean floor.
compare and contrast deep water circulation in Mediterranean intermediate waters
the warm water in the Mediterranean causes water to evaporate leaving it even more salty. The salty water flows through straight of gibralter into Atlantic, sinks below surface water but is still less dense than cold deep water. Intermediate water has three layers and deep water has two layers
Name the parts of a wave
1. crest -- high point of wave
2. trough -- low point of wave
3. wavelength -- distance between two crests or two troughs
4. amplitude -- half the distance of the wave height
Explain how waves are formed
Wind energy is transferred to the water; water plies up forming a wave, wave increases height as wind blows. The height depends on speed of wind and distance over which it blows and length of time. When wind stops blowing waves stop forming, but once set in motion waves continue to move fr long distances.,
What is the relationship between amplitude and energy of the wave?
The more wind energy in the wave, the higher the amplitude.
What causes a wave to break?
When the height to length ratio reaches 1 to 7 waves begin to break. The wave to tall for its base and breaks. The wave height is affected by speed, distance and time.
Explain how the gravitational pull of the moon effects earth's oceans?
the moon's gravity exerts a pull on the earth, creating high and low tides As the earth rotates, different ocations on its surface pass through high and low tide.
What is a neep tide?
when the sun earth and moon form a right angle, high tides are lower and low tides are higher
What is a spring tide?
when the moon earth and sun are lined up together the combined pull of sun and moon causes spring tides. during this high tides are higher and low tides are lower.
What is meant by tidal range?
The tidal range is the difference between the ocean at high tide and low tide.
Describe the tide cycles of Atlantic and pacific coasts of the United States.
These areas have two cycles of high and low tides each day. (caused by the earth's rotation) Daily cycle takes 24 hours 50 minutes, slightly more than a day. one cycle is 12 hours and 25 minutes.
What is a tidal bore?
A wall of water caused by incoming tide that moves up a narrow river. This causes the river to reverse its flow and creates a steep sloping wave.Tidal bores tend to be found in places with large tidal ranges.
continental margin
The continental margin is the zone of the ocean floor that separates the thin oceanic crust from thick continental crust. Continental margins constitute about 28% of the oceanic area.
sounding
he action or process of measuring the depth of the sea or other body of water using sound.
crest
the top of the wave
wave
rhythmic movement that carries energy through matter or space
nitrates
Nitrates (NO3) are formed in the atmosphere by lightning discharges which oxidize atmospheric nitrogen. Some nitrates are released by volcanoes and soil processes.
itrates enter the ocean from rainfall and river discharge; ome nitrates which are formed in the ocean surface waters by bacteria.
halite
sodium chloride -- the common table salt you use to season
guyot
also known as a tablemount, is an isolated underwater volcanic mountain (seamount), with a flat top
trough
the bottom of a wave, the lowest point of the wave
tide
daily rise and fall in sea level caused for the most part by the interaction of gravity in the earth moon system
desalination
removing salt from seawater
amplitude
essentially the height of the wave, but it is measured by the distance from the midpoint to the crest or the trough
volcanic island arc
tectonic plates collide and create a chain of volcanoes
continental shelf
gradually sloping end of the continent that extends beneath the ocean
breaker
collapsing ocean waves that form in shallow water and breaks on to the shore