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45 Cards in this Set

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true breeding
organisms that produce offspring identical to themselves if allowed to self-pollinate
hybrid
offspring of crosses between parents with different traits
What is the other name for mitosis and meiosis?
mitosis-nuclear division
meiosis-reduction division
monohyrbrid cross
Ab X Ab
test cross
way to determine the genotype of a heterozygate of unknown background
heterozygousXhomozygous recessive
polygenic trait
trait controlled by two or more genes ex. height
codominance
both alleles of a gene contribute to the phenotype of the organism
ex. sickle cell disease
sex-linked traits
trait located on the X or Y chromosome
ex. hemophilia
multiple alleles
three or more alleles of the same genes
ex. blood type
incomplete dominance
sitiation in which one allele is not compleletely dominatn over the other ex. carnations
autosomes
chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes
Which parent detmerines sex of the offspring?
father because he has both X and Y chromosme. Female just has X
diploid
cell that contains both sets of homologuous chromosomes
haploid
cell that contains only a single set of chromomomes
monohybrid cross
heterozygous X heterozygous
dihybrid cross
heterozygous heterozygous X heterozgyous heterozygous
ratio is always 9:3:3:1
Griffith
transformation occurs
Hershey and Chase
DNA->hereditary info
viruses
Franklin and Wilkins
xray crystollography
DNA possibly a double helix
Chargaff
A=T C=G
Watson and Crick
DNA=double helix/ structural model
Avery, Mohead, Mcurdy
DNA responsible for transformation
What is the enzyme required for DNA replication>
DNA polymerase
What is the enzyme required for transcription>
RNA polymerase
What are four molecules required for translation?
ribosome
amino acids, tRNA, mRNA
What is a substitution mutation?
substitutes one nitrogenous base for another
What is frameshift mutation>
changes reading frame of the mRNA
photosynthesis
organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and carbohydrates
chemosynthesis
organisms use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates
community
assemblage of different populations that live in a defiend area
ecosystem
collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving environment
food chain
series of stps in an ecosystem in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten
food web
network of interactions formed by the feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem
transpiration
loss of water from a plant through its leaves
evaporation
process by which water changes from a liquid into an atmospheric gas
autotroph
organism cpatures energy from sunlight and uses it to proudce its own food
primary productivity
rate at which organic matter is created by producers in an ecoystem
energy
mass
number pyramids
shows the relative number of individual organisms at each trophic level
adapatation
inherited characterists that increases an organisms chance of survial
niche
full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism uses those conditions
primary succession
succession occuring on surfaces where no soil exists
secondary succession
succession following a disturbance that destroys a community without destorying the soil
mutualism
symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit from the relationship
commensalism
symbiotic relationship in which one member of the association benefits and the other is neither helped not harmed