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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Element
a substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler substance
Atom
smallest particle of an element
Suspension
a heterogenous mixture that seperates into layers over time
Pure Substance
simply a substance
Compound
a substance that is made from tow or more simpler substances and can be broken down into those simpler substances
Solution
when a substance dissolves and forms a homogeneous mixture; solution is formed mixture
Colloid
contains some particles that are intermediate in size between the small particles in a solution and the larger particles in suspension
solid
the state if matter in which materials have definite shape and volume
liquid
state of matter in which material has a definite volume but not a definite shape
gas
state of matter in which a substance has neither a definite shape or volume
kinetic energy
the energy an object has due to its motion
nucleus
a dense, positively charged mass located in the center of the atom
proton
a positivley charged subatomic particle that is found in the mucleus of an atom
atomic number
element equals the number of protons in an atom
neutron
a neutral subatomic particle that is found in the nucleus of an atom
electron
a negativley charged subatomic particle that is found in the space outside of the nucleus
mass number
an atom is the sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of that atom
electron cloud
visiual model of the most likely locations for the electrons in an atom
neutron
neutarl subatmoic particle that is found in the nucleus of an atom
atomic mass
sum of protons and neutrons
energy level
possible energies that electrons in an atom can have
electron
a negativley charged subatomic particle that is found in the space outside the nucleus of an atom
mass number
the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the neucleus of an atom
ion
an atom or group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge
isiotope
atoms of a given element that have different numbers of neutrons and different mass numbers
neutral
normal,regular, middle
Democritus
believed all matter consisted of extremely smallparticles that could not be divided and he called them atoms
Aristotle
did not think there was a limit to the number of times matter could be divided
Dalton
propsed a theory that all matter is made up of individual particles called atoms, which cannot be divided
Thomson
experiments provided the first evidence that atoms are made of even smaller particles (subatomic particles)
Rutherford
all of an atom's positive charge is concentrated in its nucleus
Bohr
TBA
valence electrons
an electron that is the highest occupied energy level of an atom
octet rule
TBA
ionic bonding
the force that holds canions and anions together
ionic solids
TBA
ionic formulas
TBA
covalent bonding
a covalent bond in which two two atoms share a pair of valence electrons
electron dot formula
TBA
structural formual
TBA
electron dot diagrams or symbols
a diagram of an atom, ion, or molecule in which each dot represents a valence electron
cation
an ion with a positive charge
anion
an ion with a negative charge
crystal lattice
(crystal):solids whose particles are arranged in a lattice structure
molecule
a neutral group of atoms that are joined together by one or more covalent bonds
diatomic molecule
TBA
single bond, double bond, and triple bond
TBA
kilo
thousand;k;1000
deci
tenth;d;0.1
centi
hundreth;c;0.01
milli
thousandth;m;0.001
micro
millionth;0.000001