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21 Cards in this Set

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Nutrient
A substance that provides nourishment for growth or metabolism.
Nutrition
The process by which living organisms obtain food and use it for growth, metabolism, and repair. The stages of nutrition include ingestion, digestion, absorption, transport, assimilation, and excretion.
The scientific study of food and nourishment, including food composition, dietary guidelines, and the roles that various nutrients have in maintaining health.
Food Energy
Food energy is the amount of energy in food that is available through digestion
Carbohydrate
Any of a group of organic compounds that includes sugars, starches, celluloses, and gums and serves as a major energy source in the diet
Simple Carbohydrate
a carbohydrate, as glucose, that consists of a single monosaccharide unit.
Complex Carbohydrate
a carbohydrate, as sucrose or starch, that consists of two or more monosaccharide units
Sugar
Any of a class of crystalline carbohydrates that are water-soluble, have a characteristic sweet taste, and are universally present in animals and plants. They are characterized by the many OH groups they contain. Sugars are monosaccharides or small oligosaccharides, and include sucrose, glucose, and lactose.
Digestion
the process in the alimentary canal by which food is broken up physically, as by the action of the teeth, and chemically, as by the action of enzymes, and converted into a substance suitable for absorption and assimilation into the body.
Fat
Any of a large number of oily compounds that are widely found in plant and animal tissues and serve mainly as a reserve source of energy.
Fatty Acid
any of the saturated or unsaturated organic acids (as palmitic acid) that have a single carboxyl group and usually an even number of carbon atoms and that occur naturally in the form of glycerides in fats and fatty oils
Saturated Fat
The kind of fat in which the molecules are arranged so that every valence electron in each of the atoms making up the molecule is used to form a bond with one electron from another atom (called a single bond). Saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature and are found in butter, red meat, poultry, and milk products.
Unsaturated Fat
A fat derived from plant and some animal sources, especially fish, that is liquid at room temperature. Intake of foods containing more unsaturated fats than saturated fats may contribute to reduced blood cholesterol levels.
Cholestrol
A white crystalline substance, C27H45OH, found in animal tissues and various foods, that is normally synthesized by the liver and is important as a constituent of cell membranes and a precursor to steroid hormones. Its level in the bloodstream can influence the pathogenesis of certain conditions, such as the development of atherosclerotic plaque and coronary artery disease.
Protein
any of numerous, highly varied organic molecules constituting a large portion of the mass of every life form and necessary in the diet of all animals and other nonphotosynthesizing organisms, composed of 20 or more amino acids linked in a genetically controlled linear sequence into one or more long polypeptide chains, the final shape and other properties of each protein being determined by the side chains of the amino acids and their chemical attachments: proteins include such specialized forms as collagen for supportive tissue, hemoglobin for transport, antibodies for immune defense, and enzymes for metabolism.
Amino Acid
Basic organic molecules that combine to form proteins. Amino acids are made up of hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen. Some examples of amino acids are lysine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan.
Complete Protein
A complete protein (or whole protein) is a protein that contains all of the essential amino acids to humans and most animals
Incomplete Protein
Is a food source that does not contain all 9 essential amino acids.
Mineral
any of the inorganic elements, as calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium, or sodium, that are essential to the functioning of the human body and are obtained from foods.
Vitamin
any of a group of organic substances essential in small quantities to normal metabolism, found in minute amounts in natural foodstuffs or sometimes produced synthetically: deficiencies of vitamins produce specific disorders.
Water
A colorless, odorless compound of hydrogen and oxygen.
Dietry Fiber
The parts of grains, fruits, and vegetables that contain cellulose and are not digested by the body. Fiber helps the intestines absorb water, which increases the bulk of the stool and causes it to move more quickly through the colon.