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24 Cards in this Set

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multiple alleles
three or more forms of a gene that code for a single trait
phenotype
an organism's physical apperance, or visable traits
sex chromosome
The only pair of chromosomes that don't always match. Determine the sex of a baby.
xx=girl xy=boy
sex-Linked Genes
genes that are carried on the sex chromosomes
Carrier/Vector
When a person carries both the dominant and recessive alleale for a trait. They don't show the trait but "carry" it and can pass it along to Their children Bb
Pedigree
Pedigree a family history of which family members had certain traits. Geneticists use it to trace inheritance of certain traits ex:you may be able to look at your family tree and see a history of diabetes and
genetic disorder
an abnormal condition that a person inherits through genes or chromosomes GENTIC DISORDERS ARE CAUSED BY MUTATION OR CHANGES IN A PERSONS DNA
Cysitc Fibrosis
a genetic disorder where the body produces abnormally thick mucus in lungs and intestines. It is incurrable most common in people with ancestors from northern europe
sickle-cell`
genetic disorder that people of african ancestory. Causes red blood cells to be sickle shapeed because of this they can't carry as much oxygen
hemophilia
genetic disorder that causes a persons blood to clot very slowly it is a sex-linked disorder where the recessive gene is carried on the X chromosome
Huntington disease
Genetic disease passed on the DOMINANT allele. Every peron who inherits the allele with get disease. Symtoms don't appear until 30's This is a Fatal disease
Down Syndrome
When a person has an extra copy of the 21 chromosome. Caused when chromosomes fail to separate properly in meiosis
amniocentesis
When a needle is inserted into the sack surounding a baby and some of the fluid is taken out and tested for abnrormal genes
selective breeding
selecting organisms with desired traits to breed. Hoping to pass the desired traits on to the next generation
inbreeding
a Type of selective breeding when you breed to organisms with the same traits to produce more with the same traits ex: pure bred dogs
hybridization
a form of selective breeding when two orgamisims both with different but desirable traits are crossed hoping that the offspring with have the desirable traits from both sides
genetic enginering
when genes from one oraganism is transfered to the dna of another.
gene splicing
a DNA molecules is cut open and a gene from another organism is spliced into it
plasmid
some bacterial cells also contain small circular pieces of DNA
cloning
when you make an identical organism
gene therapy
trying to correct some genetic disorders
dna fingerprinting
enzymes are used to cut DNA in the sample found at a crime scene into fragments
human genome
prodjectto identify the DNA sequence of every gene in human genome
Karyotype
is a picture of all the chromosmes in a cell