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100 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
selective breeding
the breeding of organisms that have a certain desired trait
natural selection
the process by which organisms with favorable traits survive and reproduce at a highter rate than organisms without the favorable trait
mutation
a change in the order of the bases in a organism's DNA; deletion, insertion, or substitution
generation time
the period betweent eh birth of one generationand the birth of the next generation
speciation
th eprocess by which 2 populations of the smae species become so different that they can no longer interbreed
geologic time scale
the division of Earth's history into distinct intervals of time
extinct
describes a species of organism that has died out completely
plate tectonics
the study of the forces that drive the movement of pieces of Earth's crust around the surface of the planet
relative dating
determining whether an event or object, such as a fossil, is older or younger than other events or objects
Life Science
The study of living things
Scintific Method
A series of steps that scientists use to awnser questions and solve problems
Hypothesis
A possible explanation or awnser to a question
Controlled Experemint
An experiment tht tests only one factor at a time
Variable
A factor in a controlled experiment that changes
Theory
A unifying explanation for a broad range of hypothesis and observations that have been supported by experimentations
technology
The application of knoledge, tools, and materials to solve problems and accomplish tasks; technology can also be reffered to the objects to accomplish tasks
Compound Light Microscope
A microscope that consists of a tube with lenses, a stage, and a light source
Electon Microscope
A microscope that uses tiny particles of matter to produce magnified images
Area
The measure of how much surface an object has
Volume
the amount of space that something occupies
Mass
The amount of matter that something is made of;its value does not change with the objects location
temperature
the measure of hot or cold something is
Cell
a membrane covered structure that contains all the materials necessary for life
stimulus
anything that effects the activity of the organism, organ or tissue
homeostasis
the maintenance of a stable internal environment
asexual reproduction
reproduction in which a single parent produces offsprings that are genetically identical to the parent
sexual reproduction
reproduction in which two sex cell join together to form a zygote
DNA
heredity material that controls all the events of the cell
Heredity
the passing of traits from parents to offsprings
metabolism
the combined chemical proccess that occur in a cell or a living organism
sex cells
an egg or sperm; a sex cell carries half the number of chromosomes found in other body cells
producer
organisms that make their own food
consumer
an organism that eats producers or other consumers
decomposer
an organism that breaks down the remains of dead organisms
protein
large molecules made of sub units made of aminoacids
carbohydrate
compounds made of sugars
lipid
compound that cannot mix with water
phospholipids
molecule that form most of the cell membrane
nucleic acid
compound made of sub units called nucleotides
ATP
fuel used for cell activity that require energy
meiosis
cell division that produces sex cells
sex chromosomes
the chromosomes that carry genes that determine the sex of offspring
adaptation
a characteristic that helps and organism survive in its environment
Tissue
a group of similar cells that work together to perform a specific job in the body
organ
a combination of one or more tissues that work together to perform a specific function
organ system
a group of organs that work together to perform body functions
organism
anything that can independently carry out life proccess
unicellular
made of a single cell
multicellular
made of many cells
population
a group of individuals of the same species that live together in the same area at the same time
community
all the populations of different species that live and interact in the same area
ecosystem
a community of organisms and their nonliving environment
cell membrane
a phospholipid layer that covers a cell's surface and acts as a barrier between the inside of the cell and the cell's environment
organelles
a structure within a cell, sometimes surrounded by a cell membrane
cytoplasm
cellular fluid surrounding a cells organells
species
the most specific of the seven levels of classififcation; characterized by a group of organisms that can mate one another to produce fertile offsprings
nucleus
the membrane-covered organelle found in eukaryotic cells; contains the cell's DNA and serves as a control center for the cell
prokaryotic
a cell that does not have a nuclesu or any other membrane-covered organelles; also called a bacterium
eukaryotic
a cell that contains a central nucleus and a complicated internal structure
bacteria
extremely small, single-celled organisms without a nucleus; prokaryotic cells
cell wall
a structure that surrounds the cell membrane of some cells and provides strength and support to the cell membrane
ribosomes
a small organelle in cells where proteins are made from amino acids
endoplasmic reticulum
a membrane-covered cell organelle that produces lipids, breaks down drugs and other substances, and packages proteins for delivery out of the cell
mitochondria
cell organelles surrounded by two membranes that break down food molecules to make ATP
chloroplast
an organelle found in plant and algae cells where photsynthesis occurs
Golgi complex
the cell organelle that modifies, packages, and transports materials out of the cell
vesicle
a membrane-covered compartment in a eukaryotic cell that forms when part of the cell membrane surounds an object and pinches off
vacuole
a large membrane-covered structure found in plant cells that serves as a storage container for water and other liquids
lysosomes
a special vesicle in a cell that digests food particles, wastes, and foreign invaders
diffusion
the movement of particles from an area where their concentration is high to an area where their concentration is low
osmosis
the diffusion of water across a cell membrane
passive transport
the diffusion of particles through proteins in the cell membrane from areas where the concentration of particles is high to areas where the concentration of particles is low
passive transport
the diffusion of particles through proteins in the cell membrane from areas where the concentration of particles is high to areas where the concentration of particles is low
active transport
the movement of particles through proteins in the cell membrane against the direction of diffusion; requires cells to use energy
endocytosis
the process in which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses it in a vesicle to bring it into the cell
evolution
the process by which populations accumulate inherited changes over time
fossils
the solidified remains or imprints of a once-living organism
fossil record
a historical sequesnce of life indicated by fossils bound in layers of the Earth's crust
vestigial organ
an organ that doesn't work anymore but might have been useful to an ancestor
traits
a distinguishing quality that can be passed from one generation to another
cytokinesis
the process in which cytoplasm divides after mitosis
heredity
the passing of traits from parent to offspring
dominant trait
the trait observed when at least one dominant allele for a characteristic is inherited
recessive trait
a trait that is apparent only when two recessive alleles for the same characteristic are inherited
genes
segments of DNA that carry hereditary instructions and are passed from parent ot offspring; located on chromosomes
alleles
different forms of a single gene
genotype
the inherited combination of alleles
phenotype
an organism's inherited appearance
probability
the mathematical chance that an event will occur
chromosome
a coiled structure of DNA and protein that forms in the cell nucleus during cell division
binary fission
the simple cell division in which one cell splits into two; used by bacteria
homologous chromosomes
chromosomes with matching information
exocytosis
the process used to remove large particles from a cell; during exocytosis, a vesicle containing the particles fuses with the cell membrane
photosynthesis
the process by which plants capture light energy from the sun and convert it into sugar
cellular respiration
the process of producing ATP in the cell form oxygen and glucose; releases carbon dioxide and water
fermentation
the breakdown of sugars to make ATP in the absence of oxygen
cell cycle
the life cycle of a cell;in eukaryotes it consists of chromosome duplication, mitosis, and cytokinesis
chromatids
idntical chromosome copies
centromere
the region that holds chromatids together when a chromosome is duplicated
mitosis
nuclear division in eukaryotic cells in which each cell receives a copy of the original chromosomes