Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/45

Click to flip

45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 4 phases of the cell cycle?
G1, Synthesis, G2, Mitosis
Describe G1 phase.
Cell growth after cell division, metabolically active especially RNA and protein synthesis
Describe S phase.
Dna in the nucleus replicates, a few hours long
Describe G2 phase.
Synthesis of RNA,proteins, various macromolecules, double the amount of DNA, a few hours in length
Describe M phase.
Chromosomes are visible, chromosome separation and formation of 2 nuclei and 2 offspring cells
Chromosomes
Rod like strands of DNA and proteins, located in the nucleus, Have the genetic information of the organism, blueprints of organism, have chromatins and centromeres
chromatin
long, thin, twisted strands of chromosome material
centromeres
the center part of a chromosome where sprindle fibers attach
centrioles
in animal cells-make spindle fibers
spindle fibers
fibers which pull chromosomes apart
Mitosis
Asexual, process of chromosome replication and division, called nuclear division, cytoplasmic division
cytoplasmic division
the cell divides into 2 new cells, they are identical, same number of chromosomes as the original cell
ORder of mitosis phases
interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
Interphase
nucleus, 1 set of chromsomes, 2 centrioles
Prophase
Nucleus starts to break apart, chromsomes replicated, centrioles start to move apart
Metaphase
no nucleus, Chromsomes line up in middle, centrioles are on opposite ends connectted by sprindle fibers
Anaphase
Chromosomes pull apart
telophase
2 new complete cells are formed
Binary fission
equal division of nuclear materials and cytoplasm resulting in 2 new organisms- ameba,paramecium, one-celled organisms
budding in yeast
undergo mitosis but there is an unequal distribution of cytoplasm
budding in hydra
multicelluluar outgrowth from the parent organism is formed
Sporulation
Single, specialized cells are released from the parent and can develop into new individuals, fungi and spores
Regeneration
the development of an entire new organism from a part of the original organism -replacement of lost structures (starfish, lobster)
Vegetative propogation
new individual plants can be developed from roots, stems, or leaves of the parent plant
examples of vegetative propogation
bulbs, tubers, rhizomes, runners, grafting, cuttings
advantages of vegetative propogation
no variations, speed is faster, seedless fruits, combination of desirable characteristics
concept of sexual reproduction
production of gametes, fertilization to make a zygote
gametes
eggs and sperm
zygote
fertilized egg cell
monoploid or haploid (n)
having one copy of each chromosome
diplod
having 2 copies of each chromosomem(2n)
meiosis
one replication, 2 divisoins (creates gametes with half the number of chromosomes as parents)
location of meiosis
occurs only in the cells of the gonads that make gametes
comparisons between mitotis and meiosis
mitosis-growth and asexual reproduction, 2 daughter cells identical to parents, meiosis-sexual, 4 haploid daughter cells
gametogenesis
making gametes
spermatogenesis
making male gametes-occurs in male gonads-a primary sex cell undergoes meiosis to make 4 haploid cells which mature into a sperm cell
oogenesis
making female gametes, occurs in female gonads, undergoes meiosis to make 1 haploid egg and 3 polar bodies
external fertilization
gametes fuse outside of the body (fish and amphibeans)
internal fertilization
gamtes fuse in the reproductive tract of the female (most terrestrial vertabrae animals)
cleavage
rapid cell divison with no incease in cell size
blastula
hollow ball of single layer cells
gastrulation
indenting of the blastula to form a gastrula with germ layers
ectoderm
nervous systema and epidermis
mesoderm
muscles, skeleton, circulatory, excretory, reproductive
endoderm
lining of digestive and respiratory tracts, liver,pancreas