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72 Cards in this Set

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proton
A proton is a positively charged particle inside an atom's nucleus.
What are some ways of measuring mass and volume?
You can measure mass by pushing or pulling. Volume is measured in cubic units of measure.
compound
A compound is a chemical combination of two or more elements.
State three physical properties of water.
Water is a liquid at room temperature, it has no odor, it is colorless, and it is more dense than oil but less dense than mercury.
Why are fossil fuels called fossil fuels?
Fossil fuels formed from ancient plants and animals.
mass
Mass is a measure of how hard it is to push or pull an object.
hydroelectricity
Hydroelectricity is the use of flowing water to generate electricity.
When a candle burns, some of the wax melts and runs down the side. Is this a chemical change or a physical change?
It is a physical change because the wax is not changed into a new substance.
What is thermal expansion?
Thermal expansion is the expansion of matter when its temperature is raised.
volume
Volume is the amount of space an object takes up.
potential energy
Potential energy is the energy stored in an object or material.
matter
Matter is any solid, liquid, or gas.
exothermic reaction
An exothermic reaction is a reaction that gives off heat.
What is the relationship between heat and the three states of matter?
Heat can change a solid into a liquid and then into a gas.
chemical bond
A chemical bond is a link that atoms or electrically charged particles can form with each other.
density
Density is the amount of mass in a certain volume of material; found by dividing the mass of an object by its volume.
electron
An electron is a negatively charged particle that moves around an atom's nucleus.
Could an element be found in two different places in the periodic table?
No.
How do electric power plants control pollution?
Electric power plants use cooling towers to help control pollution.
How do metals and nonmetals form an ionic bond?
Nonmetals have a strong ability to attract electrons.
If a substance has a low pH, does it have more H+ ions or more OH- ions?
It would have more H+ ions.
Is lighting a match a chemical change or a physical change? Why?
Lighting a match is a chemical change because a new substance is formed.
Can modern plant and animal matter give us energy? How?
Yes, modern plant and animal matter can give us energy through biomass conversion.
Describe how the periodic table is arranged.
In the modern periodic table, the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number.
What makes a substance an acid?
Acids have more H+ ions.
Briefly discuss the contributions of Rutherford and Mosely with respect to atoms.
Rutherford and Mosely showed that positive matter was packed in the tiny nucleus.
thermal expansion
Thermal expansion is the expansion of matter when its temperature is raised.
Explain the difference between metals and nonmetals.
Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity, and bendable. Nonmetals are poor conductors of heat and electricity, and brittle.
What makes a substance a base?
Bases have more OH- ions.
Briefly discuss the contribution of Thomson with respect to atoms?
Thomson showed that atoms contained electrons and he likened them to raisins in pudding.
convection
Convection is the transfer of energy by the flow of a liquid or gas.
Describe two ways that atoms can combine to form a compound?
Atoms share electrons in a covalent bond or become ions and form ionic bonds.
Give four examples of acids and four examples of bases.
Possible answers for acids: vinegar, stomach acid, lemon juice, tomato juice

Possible answers for bases: soaps, lye, lime, baking soda
How is the atomic number of an element determined?
The atomic number of an atom is determined by the number of protons.
How can we capture energy from wind?
We can capture energy from wind using wind turbines.
What is the difference between mass and density?
Mass is a measure of how much density an object has; density is the amoung of mass in a given amount of space.
physical change
A physical change is a change in size, shape, or state, without forming a new substance.
Name the two ways elements can be mixed or combined together.
Elements can be mixed or combined together physically and chemically.
How can falling water give us energy?
Falling water can give us energy through hydroelectricity.
chemical change
A chemical change is a change in matter that produces a new substance with different properties from the original.
neutron
A neutron is a particle with no charge inside an atom's nucleus.
Of all the particles in an atom, which contribute very little to the mass of an atom?
electrons
pressure
1. Pressure is the force on each unit of area of a surface.

2. Pressure is the weight that presses down on a layer of sediment.
If you seal an empty glass pickle jar and drop it in water it floats. How can it float if the glass is denser than water?
The weight per unit volume of the sealed glass jar plus the enclosed air is less than the density of water.
How can the sun's energy be used?
One way the sun's energy can be used is to use solar cells. Solar cells generate electric current from sunlight.
What two kinds of particles are found in the nucleus of an atom?
Protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus of an atom.
molecule
A molecule is a group of bonded atoms that acts like a single particle.
Explain the difference between a physical change and a chemical change.
A physical change is a change in size, shape, or state, without forming a new substance.

A chemical change is when new substances with different physical properties are formed.
How is sunlight being turned into electricity in some large power plants?
Some large power plants use many mirrors to focus the Sun's rays onto a central collector. The focused rays heat water to boiling or melt salt at high temperatures in the collector. The heat energy is used to make steam, which in turn spins a turbine and generates electricity.
Why does each element have its own unique properties?
Elements are pure and cannot be broken down further.
chain reaction
A chain reaction is a reaction that is kept going by products of the reaction.
What are the three groups that the elements fall into, based on their properties?
metals, metalloids, and nonmetals
ion
An ion is an electrically charged particle with unequal numbers of protons and electrons.
atoms
Atoms are tiny structures found in all matter.
conduction
Conduction is the transfer of energy by direct contact of molecules.
Metal, nonmetal, or metalloid?

It's dull and brittle, and does not conduct heat or electricity.
nonmetal
endothermic reaction
An endothermic reaction is a reaction that absorbs heat.
Briefly discuss the contribution of Dalton with respect to atoms?
Dalton said atoms were solid and had no particles inside.
metal
A metal is any of a group of elements that conducts heat and electricity, and is shiny and bendable.
What is the difference between an element and a compound?
An element has only one kind of atom, is pure, and is separated in nuclear reactions.

A compound has two or more kinds of atoms that are chemically bonded, is pure, and is separated in chemical reactions.
Summarize the differences between solids, liquids, and gases.
Solids: The particles of matter are in a rigid arrangment so solids have a definite shape and volume.

Liquids: Particles are free to move around one another and there is a definite shape, but not a definite volume.

Gases: Gas particles move quickly and there is no definite shape or volume.
Metal, nonmetal, or metalloid?

It's shiny, conducts heat, conducts electricity, and bends.
metal
How is oxygen in the air similar to the water we drink? How are these substances different?
Possible answer: Water and oxygen are similar because they are both made of atoms. Water and oxygen are different because they are both comprised of different atoms.
What makes particles of atoms stay together?
Particles of atoms stay together because opposite charges attract.
elements
Elements are pure substances made of only one kind of atom.
What has some of the properties of a metal, some of the properties of a nonmetal, and makes materials that conduct electricity?
metalloid
If you run hot water over a metal lid that is stuck on a jar, it is easier to get the lid off. Why?
The heat makes the metal lid expand so it comes off the jar easier.
What property did Mendeleev use to arrange the elements in the periodic table?
Mendeleev arranged the elements in the periodic table according to atomic mass.
Which particles in the nucleus can vary in number among atoms of the same element?
neutrons
Does sodium hold its outer electron strongly or weakly? Why?
Sodium holds its outer electron strongly, because it bonds with chlorine.
How does the attraction of protons and electrons cause covalent bonds to form?
The attraction of protons and electrons causes covalant bonds to form because the nuclei attach or attract to the same electron.
What is an ion?
An ion is a particle with unequal numbers of protons and electrons.