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121 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
The earth is approximately _______ km from the sun. This distance is equal to ___ AU (________)
Astronomical Unit
Another way to measure distance is to measure the speed of _________.
Light travles approximately
________ km/s. What is this distance also called?
18,000,000 km
1 light-minute
The distances between the planets in our solar system can also be measured in light ________ and _______ hours.
How long does it take the light from the sun to reach the earth?
8.3 light minutes
Distances between stars are measured in ______ years, which is the distance ______ travels in one Earth _______.
Light travels _________km in one _______ _______.
9.5 trillion
Earth year
The North Star (_______) is _ _ _ light years from Earth.
Define Satellite.
Natural or artificial bodies that revolve around larger bodies like planets.
List those planets without moons.
Mercury and Venus
What is the name of Earth's moon?
For preservation of all impacts to a moon by other objects, what do the conditons have to be?
It has to have no atmosphere.
The different phases of the moon are due to the changing positions between the _______ and the ____.
What is a waxing moon?
When the sunlit fraction that is visible from Earth is getting larger.
Name the eight phases of the moon starting from the full moon, and describe what its appearance would be.
Full moon: full circle, white
Waning Gibbous: oval shaped, getting smaller from right
Last quarter: left half circle
Waning Crescent: Crescent to left
New Moon: full circle, greyish dark
Waxing crescent: crescent to right
First quarter: Right half circle
Waxing gibbous: oval shaped, odd shaped on left.
1._________ Spectral Class
^ O B A F G K
i 2._________->
Magnitude 5.__________
4._________ <-------------
1. Brighter
2. Color of Stars
3. Brightness
4. Fainter
5. Temperature
What are the wavelengths of visible light?
a. violet
b. indigo
c. blue
d. green
e. yellow
f. orange
g. red
a. 400-430
b. 430-450
c. 450-500
d. 500-570
e. 570-590
f. 590-610
g. 610-700
Life Cycle of Stars
Put these in order:

A super nova occurs

Nuclear fusion occurs and causes the star to glow

If it is a massive star, a neutron star will form. If it is a super massive star, a black hole will form.

A nebula collapes due to gravity.

A red giant forms when the hydrogen and helium runs out. The core contracts and the outer layers expand and become less bright.

A main sequence star is formed, and it can live for millions or billions of years.
What is a parallax?
the apparent shift of nearby stars relative to more distant stars as Earth orbits the sun.
What is an open cluster?
A group of older stars located in the halo of spiral galaxies.
What is cosmology?
The study of the origin and future of the universe.
What is a black hole?
Something that is so small and massive that its gravity does not even let light escape.
What is a white-dwarf?
A hot star that is near the end of its life.
What is a spiral galaxy?
A galaxy that has distinctive arms and a nuclear bulge.
What is a nebula?
A giant cloud of gas and dust.
What is a red giant?
A large cool star formed when a star runs out of hydrogen.
What is a pulsar?
A spinning neutron star.
What is the apparent magnitude?
How bright a star looks.
What is a super nova?
The explosive death of a star.
What is a quasar?
A tiny point of light that is very mall, very far away, and very bright.
What is a large group of stars in space?
A galaxy.
What is the big bang theory?
A theory that states that the universe began when all of its contents suddenly expanded outward.
What is a globular cluster?
A group of stars that form when a lot of gas and dust come together.
What is the diagonal pattern of stars on a H-R diagram?
The main sequence.
What diagram expresses that radiation comes from all directons in space?
The H-R diagram.
What is a black dwarf?
A star that does not give off light.
To grow larger.
To shine brightly.
the middle
the medium sized star in our solar system.
a glowing ball of gas.
a cluster of stars in the sky that can be connected with imaginary lines to make a picture.
think connect the dots.
Describe each kind of galaxy:

An oval shaped galaxy with a bulge in the middle.

Top view: a ball in the middle with swirly arms

Side: a flat line with a bulge in the middle.
Barred spiral
1. backwards s with a bulge in the middle line

2. Pok-e ball
/ \

3. "X" Chromosome
What is an irregular galaxy?
A galaxy without a particular shape.
What kind of galaxy is the Milky-way?
A spiral galaxy.
The Milky Way has about how many stars?
200 billion
The Milky Way has a diameter of how many light years?
100,000 light years
Our solar system is located in the _______ arm of the Milky Way.
Where is our sun located in our galaxy?
The Orion arm.
Stars are the source of light for all bright objects in space.
There are more galaxies than stars in the universe.
These galaxies contain only old stars.
The Milky Way galaxy is probably this kind of galaxy.
Many of these galaxies have their gravity distorted by neighboring galaxies.
Most galaxies are this type.
These galaxies are massive blobs of stars.
The hot blue stars are located in the ______ ______ of a spiral galaxy. (spiral arms or nuclear bulge.)
Spiral arms.
What does a nebula have to do with stars?
They act as a star nursery and they help form stars.
Which usually has more stars:
a globular cluster or an open cluster.
Open cluster
Galaxies may form how?
a. when clouds of gas and dust collapse
b. if the cloud that forms a galaxy is rotating too quickly, an elliptical galaxy is created. If the cloud isn't rotating fast, a spiral galaxy is formed.
Quasars are not:
very large.
Label the following:
(the Milky Way)

^ ^
| |
1. disk (with the arms)
2. bulge
Name the different arms of the milky way galaxy from the outer most to the innermost.
1. Outer arm
2. Perseus arm
3. Orion arm
4. Sagittarius-Carina arm
Name the layers of the sun in order from innermost to outer most.
1. the core
2. the radiative zone
3. the convective zone
4. the photosphere
5. the chromosphere
6. the corona
Name a trait of the following:
dot, dot, dot
the core
the sun's energy is produced here
the radiative zone
the layer is so dense that light takes a long time to pass through
the convective zone
hot and cool gases circulate, bringing the sun's energy to the surface.
the photoshpere
we know this layer as the sun's surface
the chromosphere
temperatures rangge from 4,000 C to 50,000 C
the corona
The gases are visible only during a total eclipse and can reach temperatures of up to 2 million degrees Celsius.
Sun spots
violent storms on the surface of the sun
Where the sun is
the center of the solar system
the most abundant gas in the galaxy
Light and heat are two forms of:
energy (given off by the sun)
Roman name for sun
one who studies the planets, stars, and other celestial objects.
our sun is a
yellow star
True or false:
dot dot dot
Terrestrial means Earth.
Mercury takes the longest of all planets to revolove around the sun.
false (fix all of the false statements mentally)
Mercury has a smooth surface
Venus is the hottest planet
The greenhouse effect happens when heat is trapped inside a planet's atmosphere.
Venus rotates on its axis similar to the way Earth rotates on its axis.
Venus has thick clouds of sulfuric acid.
Mars is colored blue.
Mars has the largest volcano in the solar system.
Mars' volcano is active.
Mars has frozen water.
Mars takes 50,000 years to rotate on its axis.
The four inner planets are Mercury, Mars, Earth and Saturn.
The Inner Planets are also known as the Rockies.
Mars is the only planet that an unmanned spacecraft has landed on.
Mercury's surface is _______.
Rough and cratered like our moon.
What is Mercury lacking and why?
An atmosphere because it's gravity is too weak to hold it.
Venus' thick atmosphere traps large amounts of heat. Why?
The greenhouse effect.
On Venus and Uranus, the sun rises in what direction?
Olympus Mons is:
the largest volcano in the solar system
What are the four gas giants?
Jupiter, Neptune, Saturn, and Uranus.
How did the solar system form?
From a nebula.
How much of the solar system's matter did the sun claim when it formed?
Who is Jupiter named after?
A roman mythical king.
Where is the Great Red Spot located?
on Jupiter.
Gas Giants revolve ______ around the sun than Terrestrials.
Saturns rings are made from:
Dust and ice
What is perturbance?
Disturbance by gravity.
What is orbit?
the path a celestial body travels around another body.
What is the difference between orbiting and revolving?
orbiting is a celestial body traveling around another body, but revolving is a celestial body spinning.
Clock wise
Where is the Great Red Spot located?
on Jupiter.
Gas Giants revolve ______ around the sun that Terrestrials.
Saturns rings are made from:
Dust and ice
What is perturbance?
Disturbance by gravity.
What is orbit?
the path a celestial body travels around another body.
What is the difference between orbiting and revolving?
orbiting is a celestial body traveling around another body, but revolving is a celestial body spinning.
Clock wise