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40 Cards in this Set

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salinity
a measure of the amount of dissolved salts in a given amount of liquid
continental margin
includes the continental shelf, slope, and rise (all zones of the ocean)
turbidity current
a current of salty water that flows from a smaller body of water
submarine canyon
a steep sided valley developed on the sea floor of the continental slope
abyssal plain
large flat area on the ocean floor
seamounts
steep, narrow volcanic mountains risen from the ocean floor
guyot
flat topped seamounts eroded from wave action
trench
long narrow crevices
midocean ridge
underwater mountains that extend across the worlds' oceans
plankton
largest group of plants/animals in the ocean, float near surface, microscopic
nekton
all organisms that swim actively in ocean water, independent of currents
benthos
organisms that live at the bottom of the ocean
crest
highest point of a wave
trough
lowest point of a wave
wavelength
horizontal distance between two crests or troughs
tsunami
underwater earthquake
upwelling
the movement of deep, cold, and nutrient rich water to the surface
what are the three major oceans of the earth?
atlantic, pacific, and indian
What is the difference between an ocean and a sea?
a sea is part of an ocean nearly surrounded by land and an ocean is open water
how is ocean a source of fresh water?
evaporation occurs over the ocean but the salt doesn't evaporate
how did the ocean get salty?
rocks that dissolved to put sodium chloride in the ocean
how much of the ocean is salt?
3% or 35 ppt on average
what are the two most abundant elements in the ocean?
oxygen and hydrogen
what is a thermocline?
an area in the ocean where the temperature changes durastically.
what are the three ocean zones?
continental shelf, continental slope, continental rise
how are coral reefs formed?
from organisms called polyps that make limestone skeletons in warm, shallow water
What are the three ocean life zones? describe what organisms would live in each one.
intertidal zone- starfish, sea anemones, clams
neritic zone- dolphins, plankton, and fish
bathyal zone- sponges, octopi, sea stars
how do oceanographers find out about the ocean floor?
submersibles, ROV's, AUV's, corers, ect.
what was the challenger?
first vessel to record observations of the ocean (england, 1872) read ocean depth and collected animals.
what does ROV stand for? AUV? what do they help us do and what is the difference?
remotley operated vehicle, autonomous underwater vehicle.
AUV's aren't tethered to anything. they help us explore the ocean using cameras and other sensors to go deeper than humans can.
What are the three basic motions of the ocean?
waves, currents, and tides
What are the three ways waves are formed?
winds, earthquakes, and the gravitational pull of the moon
what are surface currents?
currents on the surface of the ocean caused mainly by wind patterns
what are deep currents?
currents caused by differences in density
how are tides formed?
the sun and moon's gravitational pull
intertidal zone
zone where organisms live where high and low tides change daily
what are the two types of plankton?
phytoplankton- plants
zooplankton- animals
waves
pulses of energy that move throught the ocean
What current effects the west coast?
california current
nodules
on the ocean floor, formed from dissolved substances that stick to solid objects