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36 Cards in this Set

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Biology
The scientific study of life
Inheritance
The transmition, from parents to offspring, of genes that specify structures and functions characteristic of the species
Reproduction
Any process by which a parental cell or organism produces offspring. Among Eukaryotes, asexual modes and sexual modes. Prokaryotes use prokaryotic fission only. Viruses can not reproduce themselves; host organisms execute their replication cycle.
Development
The series of genetically guided embryonic and post embryonic stages by which morphologically distinct, specialized body parts emerge in a new multi celled individual.
Energy
The capacity to do work
Metabolism
all the controlled, enzyme-mediated chemical reactions by which cells acquire and use energy to senthesize store, degrade, and eliminate substances in ways that contribute to growth, survival, and reproduction.
Stimulus
A specific form of energy (pressure, light, or heat etc. ) that activates a sensory receptor able to detect it.
Homeostasis
(homo=same, stasis=standing) State in which physical and chemical aspects of internal environment(blood, interstitial fluid) are being maintained wtihin ranges suitable for cell activities.
cell
Smalles living unit, it can survive and reproduce on its own, given its DNA, raw materials, and an energy source.
multicelled organisms
Organism composed of many cells with coordinated metabolic activity; most show extensive cell differentiation into tissues, organs, and organ systems
population
all individuals of the same species that are occupying a specified area
Community
All populations in a habitat. Also, a group of organisms with similar life-styles
EcoSystem
Array of organisms, together with their environment, interacting through a flow of energy and a cycling of materials
Biosphere
All regions of the Earth's waters, crust and atmosphere in which organisms live.
Producers
Atotroph (self feeder); it nourishes itself using sources of energy and carbon from the physical environment. Photoautotrophs and chemoautotrophs are examples.
Consumers
A heterotroph that feeds on cells or tissues of other organisms (e.g., herbivores and carnivcores.)
Decomposers
Prokaryotic or fungal heterotroph; gets carbon and energy from products or remains of organism. Helps cycle nutrients to producers in ecosystems.
Archaebacteria
Prokaryotic domain; closer to eukaryotic cells than to eubacteria; includes methanogens, halophiles and thermophiles; also called a kingdom.
Eubacteria
Domain of all prokaryotic cells except archaebacteria; also called a kingdom
Protistans
Photoautotroph or iheterotroph unlike bacteria; some like earliest eukaryotic cells. Has a nucleus, larger ribosomes, mitochondria, ER, Golgi bodies, chormosomes with numerous proteins and cytoskeletal microtubules, range insize from microscopic algae to giant kelps.
Fungi
Kingdom of fungi; major decomposers plus pathogens and parasites
Plants
Generally, a multicelled photoautotroph with well developed root and shoot systems, photosynthetic cells that include starch grains as well as chlorophylls a and b; and cellulose; pectin, and other polysaccharides in cell walls.
animals
multicelled, aerobic, motile predator or parasite, usually with tissues, organ systems; developed through embryonic stages
Mutation
Heritable change in DNA's molecular structure. Original source of all new alleles and , ultimately, the diversity of life.
Artificial Selection
Selection of traits among a population under contrived conditions
Antibiotics
Metabolic product of soil microbes that kills bacterial competitors for nutrients
Hypothesis
in science, a possible explanation of a phenomenon, one that has the potential to be proved false by experimental tests
Prediction
statement about what you should observe in nature if you were to go looking for a particular phenomenon; the if-then process
Test
the means to determine the accuracy of a predcicition as by conducting experimental or observational tests and by developing models. Scientific tests are conducted under controlled conditions in nature or the laboratory
Models
theoretical, detailed description or analogy that helps people visualize something that has not yet been directly observed.
Inductive logic
General to the specific
Deductive logic
Secific to the general
Sampling error
Use of a sample or subset of a population, an event, or some other aspect of nature for an experimental group that is not large enough to be representative of the whole
variables
of an experimental test, a specific aspect of an object or even that may differ over time and among individuals. A single variable is directly manipulated in an attempt to support or disprove a prediction
Control Group
Group used as a standerd for comparison wtih an experimental group and, ideally identical with it in all respects except for the one variable being studied
Experiments
Test that simplifies observation in nature or in the laboratory by manipulation and controlling the conditions under which the observations are made.