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36 Cards in this Set

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6 steps of natural selection
1. In nature, there is a tedency toward OVERPRODUCTION.
2. Not all offspring survive.
3. Variations are inherited.
4. Variation exist in any population.
5. Suitable ones survive and are past on while the unsuitable ones are lost.
6.The resulting population as a whole will change as it becomes better adapted to its environment.
fossils that show transition(fill in gaps) in evolution of a species
transitional fossil
the simplest dating that relies on the fact that older deposits are found below more recent geological places
relative dating
based on the knowledge that radioactive isotopes break down or decay at a constant rate called half-life
radiometric dating
includes the humerus, radius, and ulna bones, with front limbs of other mammals indicating common ancestry (comman stuctures)
homologus structures
structure once useful for an organism's lifestyle but now has no function
vestigal structures
study of developing organism relationships not obvious in an oraganism's adult life
comparative embryology
determine amino acids
DNA base sequences
determines proteins
amino acid sequences
what causes genetic variability in a population?
1.mutations
2. recombinations of chromosomes during sexual reproduction (crossing over)
happens when a small population with limited diversity founds a new population in a new location
founder effect
the ability to walk upright on 2 feet
bipedalism
rapid changes in the number and kinds of genes in a small, isolated population that may lead to evolution of a new species
genetic drift
part of an organism, or a whole organism is preserved or petrified, trace of an organism that lived long ago
fossils
the study of structures of different organisms
comparative anatomy
branch of biology that groups and names organisms base on their characteristics
taxonomy
Binomial nomenclature
2 word naming system
taxons
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
kingdoms
animal, plants, fungi, protista, monera, archaebacteria, eubacteria
evolutionary history of a species
phylogeny
classification system based on phylogeny
cladistics
step by step way to classify organisms using a series of paired questions
dichotomous key
Names the process whereby species evolve in widely differnet ways and adapt to differnt roles in varying habitats
adaptive radiation
species not closely related can still evolve similar traits when they have similar roles in similar environments
convergent evolution
an adaptive trait involving a part of an organism's anatomy, such as the hoof of a horse or the beak of a bird
structural adaptation
a group of organisms that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring
species
term for what happens when features of geography cause populations of plants and animals to separate from each other
geographic isolation
hypothesis that asserts that the normally slow and gradual process of evolution is broken by short periosds of rapid evolutionary change
punctuated equilibrium
evolution of a new species
speciation
situation in which there are rapid changes in gene pools in a small, isolated population
genetic drift
hypothesis of evolution that asserts that the changes in the evolution of species is slow and steady over very long periods of time
gradualism
one species evolves into 2 or more species with different characteristics
divergent evolution
process which by the best adapted individuals in a poplulation survive and produces similarly adapted offspring
natural selection
oraganism that survive in harsh conditions w/out oxygen
archaebacteria
2 groups of primates
1. prosimians
2. anthropoids
The prevention of interbreeding and gene exchange among species
reproduction isolation