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70 Cards in this Set

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Who was the first person to describe microscopic organisms and living cells?
Robert Hooke
The discovery of cells is linked most directly to the development of what?
The microscope
What is the correct order of structures of living things, from simplest to most complex?
cells, tissues, organs, organ systems
The cell's _______ and _________ limits the maximum size to which a cell may grow.
Surface Area and Volume
What is the smallest unit that can carry out all the processes of life? This is the basic unit of life.
Cell
These cells have cell walls, large vacuoles, and plastids.
Plant cells
What can convert sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water into glucose?
Chloroplasts
What is a pigment that absorbs energy in sunlight?
Chlorophyll
What are organisms whose cells lack a nucleous and other membrane-bound organelles?
Prokaryote
What are unicellular organisms such as bacteria and their relatives?
Prokaryotes
The first cells on earth were likely __________ that did not ____________.
prokaryotes;make their own food
What are organisms whose cells are always or usually contain a nucleus or nuclei and other membrane-bound organelles?
Eukaryotes
What are plants, fish, insects, and humans?
Eukaryotes
What is a thin layer of lipid and protein?
Cell/Plasma Membrane
What is a thin membrane the functions like a gate, controlling what enters and leaves the cell?
Cell/Plasma Membrane
What are all cells, from all organisms, surrounded by?
A plasma membrane
There are many kinds of what in cell membranes? What do these help do?
proteins; help move material into and out of the cell
What are two phospholipid layers located in the cell membrane?
lipid bilayer
Lipid is a form of what?
Fat
What does "hydrophobic" mean?
"Water fearing"
What does hydrophillic mean?
"water loving"
What is the fluid mosaic model?
The fluid mosaic model is what scientists call the modern view of the cell membrane structure.
Membranes are _____ _______ and have the consistency of ________.
fluid like; vegetable oil
Membranes are made mostly of what?
Phosphate and lipid
Why do scientists call the modern view of the cell membrane the fluid mosaic structure?
They call it that b/c the membrane is filled w/fluid and a mosaic of proteins
What is everything between the cell membrane and the nucleus called?
The cytoplasm
What is a jellylike mixture that consists mostly of water and protein?
Cytostol
What are structures that carry out specific functions in a cell?
Organelles
Most organelles are surrounded by what?
Their own membrane
What contains the life of the cell?
Organelles
What are short, hair like organelles that can move and may cover a unicellular organism or line the resperitory tract?
Cillia
What are whip-like projects for locomotion?
Flagella
What organelle maintains 3D structure and helps the cell maintain shape?
The cytoskeleton
What function in cell division and locomotion?
Mircofilaments and microtubules
What is the control center of the cell?
The nucleus
What organelle contains the cell's genetic information?
The nucleus
What is DNA in the form of a long strand?
Chromatin, made up of chromosomes
What are "blueprints" in a cell that control all its activity?
Chromatin
During cell division, what do chromatin strands do?
Chromatin strands coil and condense into thick structures called chromosomes.
What are chromosomes int he nucleus that control all cellular activity?
DNA
What is a double layer membrane that surrounds the nucleus?
Nuclear envelope
What is a nuclear pore?
A pore, or an opening, in the nucleus
What is an organelle that stores DNA and sythesizes RNA?
The nucleolus
What disappears when a cell prepares to reproduce?
The nucleolus
What is an organelle that processes and packages substances produced by the cell?
The golgi apparatus
What are the membrane-bound sacs that package and secrete cells products?
Golgi apparatus
What is an organelle that prepares proteins for export and synthesizes steroids?
Golgi apparatus
What is free in cytoplasm and line the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum?
Ribosomes
What organelle differs from most organelles b/c they have no membranes?
Ribosomes
What makes ribosomes, which in turn make protein?
Nucleoli
What are located in the rough endoplasmic reticulum?
Ribosomes
What are organelles that digest molecules, old organelles, and foreign substances?
Lysosome
What is an organelle that transfers energy in ATP?
Mitochondrion
What is the inner membrane in the mitochondria of a cell?
Christae
Where are large numbers of mitochondria often found?
In muscle cells
What organelle is the "powerhouse" of a cell?
Mitochonrion
What is where poisons and wastes are detoxified in a cell?
The endoplasmic reticulum
What is studded with ribosomes and processes proteins to be exported to the cell?
Rough endoplasmic reticulum
What is NOT covered with ribosomes and processes lipids in carbohydrates?
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
What transfers energry from organic compounds to ATP?
Mitochondria
What organizes the synthesis of proteins?
Ribosome
What prepares proteins for export, synthesizes steroids, regulates calcium levels, and breaks down toxic substances?
Endoplasmic reticulum
What processes and packages substances produced by the cell?
Golgi apparatus
What digests molecules, old organelles, and foreign substances?
lysosome
What contributes to the support, movement, or division of cells?
Microfillaments and microtubules
What propels cells through the environment; moves materials over the cell surface?
cillia and flagella
What stores hereditary information in DNA, and synthesizes RNA and ribosomes?
Nucleus
What supports and protects the cell?
Cell wall
What stores enzymes and waste products?
Vacuole
What stores food or pigments; one type trasnfers energy from light into organic compounds?
Plastid