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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What makes the temperatures change, winds to blow, and rains to fall?
the heat in the atmosphere
Where does all of the energy in Earths atmosphere come from?
What are electromagnetic waves?
a form of energy that can travel throught space
How are electromagnetic waves classified?
according to wavelentgh, of distance between waves
What is radiation?
The direct transfer of energy by electromagetic waves
How is most of energy from the sun reach Earth?
Form of visible light, infrared radiation, and a small amount of ultraviolet radiation
What is visible light?
a mixture of all the colors that you see in a rainbow
What is infrared Radiation?
a form of energy with wavelengths that are longer than red light
How is infrared heat seen?
by felt of heat
What is ultraviolet radiation?
has wavelengths that are shorter than violet light
Which color of visible light has the longest wavelengths?
What is scattering?
Reflection of light in all directions
What happens when Earths is heated?
it radiates some of the energy back into the atmosphere as infrared radiation
What is a greenhouse effect?
The process by which gases hold heat in the air
what are gases made up of?
small particles called molecules
what are gases made up of?
small particles called molecules
What is thermal energy?
The total energy of motion in the molecules of a substance
What is temperature?
The average amount of energy of motion of each molecule of a substance
How is Air temperature usually measured?
with a thermometer
what is a thermometer?
a thin glass tube with a bulb on one end that contains a liquid, usually mercury or colored alchohol
Why do thermometers work?
because liquids expand when they are heated and contract when they are cooled
What is heat?
The energy transferred from a hotter object to a cooler one
What are the 3 types of heat transfer?
Radiation, conduction, and convection
What is conduction?
The direct transfer of heat from one substance to another substance
What is Radiation?
The direct transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves
What is Conduction
The direct transfer of heat from one substance to another substance that it is touching
What is convection?
The transfer of heat by the movement of a fluid
What is a wind?
the horizontal movement of air form an area of high pressure to an area of lower pressure
What are all winds caused by?
Differences in air pressure
what are most differences in air pressure caused by?
unequal heating of the atmosphere
How are winds described?
by their direction and speed
How are wind direction determined?
with a wind vane
What is wind speed measured with?
an anemometer
What is the wind-chill factor?
the increased cooling that a wind can cause
What are local winds?
winds that blpw over short distances
What are local winds caused by?
unequal heating of Earths surface within a small area
In local winds unequal heating often occurs on what?
on land next to a large body of water
What is a sea breeze?
a wind that blows from an ocean or lake onto land
What is a land breeze?
the flow of air from land to a body of water
What are monsoons?
Sea and land breeze over a large region that change direction with the seasons
What are global winds?
Winds that blow steadily from specific directions over long distances
How are global winds created?
by unequal heating of Earths surface
_____Air rises at the equator, and ____air sinks at the poles
What produces global winds?
The movement of air between the equator and the poles produces global winds
What is Coriolis Effect?
The was Earths rotation makes winds curve
what are the major global wind belts?
the trade winds, the prevailing westerlies, and the polar easterlies
What are doldrums?
Regions near the equator with little or no winds
what is latitude?
the distance from the equator, measured in degrees
What are prevailing westerlies?
west to east winds
What are polar Easterlies?
winds from the east to the west
What are jet streams?
high speed winds