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39 Cards in this Set

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Fault
When rocks break they move along surfaces called
earthquake
vibrations produced by the breaking of a rock is called
normal fault
When rocks move along a fracture caused by tension forces the break is called a .
reverse fault
Compression forces of rock is called a .
strike-slip fault
rocks on either side of the fault are moving past eachother with much upward and downward movement. Shear forces cause this.
Seismic- wave
generated by an earthquake travel through earth. Produced and travel outward from the earthquake focus.
Focus
the point where this energy is release first occures is the
primary wave
cause particles in rocks to move back and forth in the same direction that the wave is traveling
secondary wave
move through earth by causing particles in rocks to move right angles to the direction of wave travel
Surface waves
cause most destruction resulting from earthquakes. Move particles in backward rolling and side to side swaying motion
Epicenter
the point on earth surface directly above the earthquake focus
seisomgraph
seismic waves from earthquakes are measured with an instrument called
60 km thick 5 km thick in ocean parts
Crust (how thick)
Primary wave
which wave arrive first and are the fastest at seismograph stations
Secondary wave
Which wave is the slowest and arrive second
7m-190m thick
upper mantle (how thick)
three or more
How many stations are needed to find out the location of the epicenter
The very center of earth is solid , dense inner core made mostyly of iron, nickel, oxygen, silicon and sulfur. True or False
The very center of earth is solid, dense inner core made mostly of iron, nickel, oxygen, silicon and sulfur
190-1,800 m thick
Lower mantle (how thick)
Lithosphere
broken into many plates that move over the asthenosphere beneath it.
1,800 -3,200 m thick
Outer core (how thick)
3,200- 3,960 m thick
Inner core (how thick)
Moho or Mohohoravic Discontinuity
boundary between the crust and the upper mantle
Magnitude
The height of the lines traced on the paper record of a seismograph is a measure of the energy released.
Richter Scale
used to describe the strength of an earthquake and is based on height of the lines on the seismogram. Has no upper limit
Liquefication
Wet soil can be strong most of the time, but the shaking from the earthquake can cause it to act more like liquid. Occurs when soil under buildings, the buldings can sink into the soil and collpase.
Tsunami
Ocean waves caused by earthquakes are called seismic sea waves.
Moorings
made of steel plates filled with alternating layers of rubber and steel.
Before an earthquake
moving heavy objects from high shelves and place them on lower shelves.
make sure that hot water heaters and and other gas appliances are held securly in place to prevent from fire.
place sensors on gas lines (automatically shut off the gas when earthquake vibrationsare detected)
During an earthquake
move away from windows and any objects that can fall on you.
Seek shelter in a doorway or under a sturdy desk or bed.
stay away from powerlines or anything that might fall stay away from chimney buildings or other parts of bulidings that can fall on you
After an earthquake
check water and gas lines for damage.If damaged shut off valves.
If you smell gas call 911! And leave the building fast and call authorities from phone away from a leak area.
Stay out and away from damged bildings.
be careful from anything thats broken. Wear boots or sturdy shoes that protect your feet from getting cut.
Stay away from beaches. Tsunamis may occur after eathquakes.
Elastic Deformity
up to a point applied forces cause rocks to bend and stretch
Shadow zone
a large area of the earth does not receive seismiv waves.
secondary waves cannot pass through liquid(outer core)
Primary waves slow down and bend through liquid (outer core) and speed up as they go through solids
3,000-6,000 degrees C
Inner core (degrees)
3,000 degrees C 5,400 degrees F
Lower mantle (degrees)
Iron nickel oxygen silicon sulfur
Inner core (Whats it made of)
Iron
Outer core (Whats it made of)
manesium silicon oxygen
Lower mantle (Whats it made of)
iron magnesium
Crust (Whats it made of)