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### 39 Cards in this Set

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 Fault When rocks break they move along surfaces called earthquake vibrations produced by the breaking of a rock is called normal fault When rocks move along a fracture caused by tension forces the break is called a . reverse fault Compression forces of rock is called a . strike-slip fault rocks on either side of the fault are moving past eachother with much upward and downward movement. Shear forces cause this. Seismic- wave generated by an earthquake travel through earth. Produced and travel outward from the earthquake focus. Focus the point where this energy is release first occures is the primary wave cause particles in rocks to move back and forth in the same direction that the wave is traveling secondary wave move through earth by causing particles in rocks to move right angles to the direction of wave travel Surface waves cause most destruction resulting from earthquakes. Move particles in backward rolling and side to side swaying motion Epicenter the point on earth surface directly above the earthquake focus seisomgraph seismic waves from earthquakes are measured with an instrument called 60 km thick 5 km thick in ocean parts Crust (how thick) Primary wave which wave arrive first and are the fastest at seismograph stations Secondary wave Which wave is the slowest and arrive second 7m-190m thick upper mantle (how thick) three or more How many stations are needed to find out the location of the epicenter The very center of earth is solid , dense inner core made mostyly of iron, nickel, oxygen, silicon and sulfur. True or False The very center of earth is solid, dense inner core made mostly of iron, nickel, oxygen, silicon and sulfur 190-1,800 m thick Lower mantle (how thick) Lithosphere broken into many plates that move over the asthenosphere beneath it. 1,800 -3,200 m thick Outer core (how thick) 3,200- 3,960 m thick Inner core (how thick) Moho or Mohohoravic Discontinuity boundary between the crust and the upper mantle Magnitude The height of the lines traced on the paper record of a seismograph is a measure of the energy released. Richter Scale used to describe the strength of an earthquake and is based on height of the lines on the seismogram. Has no upper limit Liquefication Wet soil can be strong most of the time, but the shaking from the earthquake can cause it to act more like liquid. Occurs when soil under buildings, the buldings can sink into the soil and collpase. Tsunami Ocean waves caused by earthquakes are called seismic sea waves. Moorings made of steel plates filled with alternating layers of rubber and steel. Before an earthquake moving heavy objects from high shelves and place them on lower shelves. make sure that hot water heaters and and other gas appliances are held securly in place to prevent from fire. place sensors on gas lines (automatically shut off the gas when earthquake vibrationsare detected) During an earthquake move away from windows and any objects that can fall on you. Seek shelter in a doorway or under a sturdy desk or bed. stay away from powerlines or anything that might fall stay away from chimney buildings or other parts of bulidings that can fall on you After an earthquake check water and gas lines for damage.If damaged shut off valves. If you smell gas call 911! And leave the building fast and call authorities from phone away from a leak area. Stay out and away from damged bildings. be careful from anything thats broken. Wear boots or sturdy shoes that protect your feet from getting cut. Stay away from beaches. Tsunamis may occur after eathquakes. Elastic Deformity up to a point applied forces cause rocks to bend and stretch Shadow zone a large area of the earth does not receive seismiv waves. secondary waves cannot pass through liquid(outer core) Primary waves slow down and bend through liquid (outer core) and speed up as they go through solids 3,000-6,000 degrees C Inner core (degrees) 3,000 degrees C 5,400 degrees F Lower mantle (degrees) Iron nickel oxygen silicon sulfur Inner core (Whats it made of) Iron Outer core (Whats it made of) manesium silicon oxygen Lower mantle (Whats it made of) iron magnesium Crust (Whats it made of)